The background of the United States is vast and complicated, however can be broken down right into milestones and also periods that separated, linked, as well as changed the United States right into the country it is today. The American flag did not look like it does currently. Aside from that, it underwent a great deal of changes and also adjustments.
The American Revolutionary War
Enter the American Revolution. Often described as the American War of Independence, or the Revolutionary War, it was a dispute which lasted from 1775-1783 and enabled the original 13 colonies to remain independent from Great Britain. Beginning in Great Britain in the late 1790s, the Industrial Revolution eventually made its way to the United States and altered the focus of the nation’s economic climate as well as the means it manufactures products.
These conflicts arose from growing tensions in between locals of Great Britain’s 13 North American colonies and also the early american government (which stood for the British crown). Attempts by the British federal government to increase profits by taxing the colonies (significantly the Stamp Act of 1765, the Townshend Tariffs of 1767 as well as the Tea Act of 1773) met with violent objection amongst several colonists, who disliked their absence of representation in Parliament and also required the exact same legal rights as other British citizens.
George Washington was made its commander in chief. Congress hoped they could require the British to work out yet George III refused to negotiate. Instead, in August 1775 he proclaimed that all the American colonies were in a state of disobedience.
By June 1776, with the Revolutionary War in full swing, an expanding bulk of the colonists had actually pertained to prefer freedom from Britain. That exact same year Richard Henry Lee of the Virginia Assembly offered Congress with resolutions stating the freedom of the colonies, calling for a confederation as well as shared the need to discover foreign allies for a battle versus Britain. On July 4th, the Continental Congress voted to take on the Declaration of Independence, drafted by a five-man committee consisting of Franklin and also John Adams but written mainly by Jefferson. By the fall of 1781, the American army had actually begun to force the opponent to withdraw to Virginia’s Yorktown peninsula, near where the York River empties right into Chesapeake Bay. Supported by a French army commanded by General Jean Baptiste de Rochambeau, Washington moved against Yorktown with a total amount of around 14,000 soldiers, while a fleet of 36 French warships offshore prevented British support or escape. Caught as well as subdued, the enemy was required to surrender their entire military. Claiming ailments, the British general sent his deputy, Charles O’Hara, to surrender; after O’Hara approached Rochambeau to surrender his sword (the Frenchman deferred to Washington), Washington gave the nod to his own replacement, Benjamin Lincoln, who approved it. After French help assisted the Continental Army require the British abandonment at Yorktown, Virginia, in 1781, the Americans had effectively won their self-reliance, though the battle would certainly not formally end until 1783.
The motion for American freedom effectively won at Yorktown, contemporary observers did not see that as the crucial success. British as well as American negotiators in Paris authorized initial peace terms in Paris late that November, as well as on September 3, 1783, Great Britain formally identified the freedom of the United States in the Treaty of Paris.
Just how the American Flag became
The American flag was developed to represent the new union of the thirteen initial states: it would have thirteen stripes, alternating red and white, and also thirteen stars, white on a blue field. One of the initial flags had the stars organized in a circle, based on the idea that all colonies were equal. The thirteen stripes, resting side-by-side, stood for the battle for freedom; red represented valiance, white signified purity and blue represented loyalty.
In 1818, after a couple of style modifications, the United States Congress made a decision to preserve the flag’s initial thirteen stripes and also add new stars to reflect each brand-new state that entered the union.
While there is no question that the real Betsy Ross deserved interest in her own right, it is the legend of Betsy stitching the initial stars and stripes that has actually made her a remarkable historical figure. The Betsy Ross story was given public attention in 1870 by her grandson, William Canby, in a speech he made to the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. Canby as well as other members of Betsy’s family members signed vouched affidavits stating that they listened to the story of the making of the very first flag from Betsy’s own mouth.
Based on the oral history, in 1776, 3 men – George Washington, Robert Morris, as well as George Ross, visited Betsy Ross in her upholstery shop. She escorted them to her parlor, where they can have a private meeting. Here, Washington pulled a folded up piece of paper from his inside jacket pocket. On it, was a drawing of a flag with thirteen red and also white stripes as well as thirteen six-pointed stars.
Washington asked if Betsy could make a flag from the style. Betsy reacted: “I don’t know, but I will try.” This line was used in the vouched declarations of a lot of Betsy’s relatives, suggesting that it is a direct quote from Betsy. As the tale goes, Betsy recommended altering the stars to 5 points rather than six. She showed them how you can do it with just one snip of her scissors. They all agreed to change the style to have stars with five points.
Some historians believe that it was Francis Hopkisnon that gave birth to the idea of the Stars and Stripes. Francis Hopkinson was a preferred patriot, a lawyer, a Congressman from New Jersey, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, poet, artist, and also identified civil servant.
He was assigned to the Continental Navy Board on November 6,1776. It was while serving on the Continental Navy Board that he turned his focus on making the flag of the United States. Making use of stars in that style is thought to have been the outcome of an experience in the war directly pertaining to his propriety.
A book in Hopkinson’s collection at his home in Bordentown was taken by a Hessian soldier in December 1776, a dark year of the war. The book, Discourses on Public Occasions in America (London, 1762) by William Smith, D.D., had been a gift to him by the writer. The soldier, one I. Ewald, wrote on the inside cover that he had actually seen the writer near Philadelphia which he, Ewald, had actually taken the book from a great nation seat near Philadelphia. The book was ultimately given to someone in Philadelphia who returned it to Hopkinson. The soldier had written above and also below Hopkinson’s bookplate, which had three six pointed stars and also his family slogan, “Semper Paratus”, or “Always Ready”. The secure return of the book may well have signified to Hopkinson the revival of the Americans’ wish.
In a letter to the Board of Admiralty in 1780 Hopkinson asserted that he had actually designed “the flag of the United States of America” as well as several ornaments, devices, and checks showing up on bills of exchange, ship documents, the seals of the boards of Admiralty and Treasury, and the Great Seal of the United States. Hopkinson had actually gotten nothing for this work, and also currently he sent a bill as well as asked “whether a Quarter Cask of the public wine” would not be a reasonable as well as appropriate incentive for his labors.
However, nobody can be so certain that produced the American flag. The American flag is the spiritual symbol of the nation. It represents the peoples’ birthright, their heritage of freedom purchased with blood as well as sadness. The title deed of liberty, which is the country’s to take pleasure in as well as keep in trust for posterity. Timeless vigilance is the price of liberty. As you see the flag silhouetted in front of the relaxed skies of the nation, you are reminded that the American flag represents just what you are – no more, no much less.
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As quoted from the Star Spangled Banner:
O say can you see, by the dawn’s early light,
What so proudly we hailed at the twilight’s last gleaming,
Whose broad stripes and bright stars through the perilous fight,
O’er the ramparts we watched, were so gallantly streaming?
And the rockets’ red glare, the bombs bursting in air,
Gave proof through the night that our flag was still there;
O say does that star-spangled banner yet wave
O’er the land of the free and the home of the brave?
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