The background of the United States is vast and also complicated, however can be broken down right into milestones and also time periods that split, linked, as well as transformed the United States right into the country it is now. The American flag didn’t look like it does currently. Besides that, it undertook a lot of adjustments and adjustments.
The American Revolutionary War
Enter the American Revolution. Sometimes described as the American War of Independence, or the Revolutionary War, it was a war which lasted from 1775-1783 and allowed the initial 13 colonies to remain independent from Great Britain. Starting in Great Britain in the late 1790s, the Industrial Revolution at some point made its path to the United States and transformed the focus of the country’s economy as well as the method it makes items.
For greater than 10 years prior to the episode of the revolution in 1775, tensions had been developing between colonists as well as the British authorities. These stress arose from growing tensions between residents of Great Britain’s 13 North American colonies and the colonial government (which represented the British crown). Attempts by the British government to raise earnings by taxing the colonies (notably the Stamp Act of 1765, the Townshend Tariffs of 1767 and also the Tea Act of 1773) met negative demonstration amongst numerous colonists, that disliked their absence of representation in Parliament and also required the exact same legal rights as other British citizens. Colonial resistance led to physical violence in 1770, when British soldiers opened fire on a crowd of colonists, eliminating five men in just what was referred to as the Boston Massacre. After December 1773, when a band of Bostonians dressed as Mohawk Indians boarded British ships then disposed 342 containers of tea into Boston Harbor, an outraged Parliament passed a collection of actions (called the Intolerable, or Coercive Acts) created to reassert imperial authority in Massachusetts.
The Continental Congress met in May 1775 and agreed to make an army. George Washington was made its commander in chief. Congress hoped they might compel the British to work out but George III chose not to negotiate. Rather, in August 1775 he proclaimed that all the American colonies remained in a state of rebellion. Meanwhile, rule by royal governor broke down as well as the people demanded government without royal interference. In May 1776 Congress decided that royal government should cease and government needs to be ‘under the authority of the people’. Consequently the colonies created state constitutions to replace their charters.
By the fall of 1781, the American army had actually begun to force the enemy to retreat to Virginia’s Yorktown peninsula, near where the York River empties into Chesapeake Bay. Stating disease, the British general sent his replacement, Charles O’Hara, to surrender; after O’Hara approached Rochambeau to surrender his sword (the Frenchman deferred to Washington), Washington provided the nod to his own deputy, Benjamin Lincoln, that approved it. After French help helped the Continental Army compel the British surrender at Yorktown, Virginia, in 1781, the Americans had efficiently won their freedom, though combatting would not formally end until 1783.
Though the movement for American independence efficiently triumphed at Yorktown, modern observers did not see that as the definitive triumph yet. British forces stayed stationed around Charleston, and the powerful major military still stayed in New York. The British removal of their soldiers from Charleston and also Savannah in late 1782 lastly indicated completion of the conflict. British and American mediators in Paris signed initial peace terms in Paris late that November, and on September 3, 1783, Great Britain officially acknowledged the independence of the United States in the Treaty of Paris. At the same time, Britain signed different peace treaties with France as well as Spain (which had gotten in the dispute in 1779), bringing the American Revolution to a close after 8 lengthy years.
How the American Flag happened
The American flag was created to stand for the brand-new union of the thirteen original states: it would certainly have thirteen stripes, alternating red and also white, and thirteen stars, white on a blue area. Among the first flags had actually the stars organized in a circle, based on the concept that all colonies were equal. The thirteen stripes, resting side by side, stood for the struggle for independence; red meant valiance, white signified pureness and blue represented loyalty.
In 1818, after a couple of layout changes, the United States Congress made a decision to retain the flag’s initial thirteen stripes as well as include brand-new stars to reflect each new state that entered the union.
While there is no doubt that the real Betsy Ross was worthy of interest in her own right, it is the legend of Betsy sewing the first stars and stripes that has made her an extraordinary historic number. The Betsy Ross story was brought to public attention in 1870 by her grand son, William Canby, in a speech he made to the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. Canby and also other participants of Betsy’s family signed sworn testimonies mentioning that they heard the story of the production of the initial flag from Betsy’s very own mouth.
Based on the oral history, in 1776, 3 men – George Washington, Robert Morris, and also George Ross, saw Betsy Ross in her upholstery shop. She escorted them to her parlor, where they can have a private meeting. Here, Washington took a folded up piece of paper from his inside jacket pocket. On it, was a sketch of a flag with thirteen red as well as white stripes and also thirteen 6-pointed stars.
Washington asked if Betsy can make a flag from the design. Betsy reacted: “I do not know, but I will certainly try.” This line was made use of in the vouched statements of numerous of Betsy’s household participants, suggesting that it is a straight quote from Betsy. As the tale goes, Betsy suggested altering the stars to five points rather compared to 6.
Some chroniclers believe that it was Francis Hopkisnon who provided birth to the idea of the Stars and Stripes. Francis Hopkinson was a popular patriot, a lawyer, a Congressman from New Jersey, an endorser of the Declaration of Independence, poet, artist, and distinguished civil servant.
He was assigned to the Continental Navy Board on November 6,1776. It was while working on the Continental Navy Board that he transformed his focus on designing the flag of the United States. The use of stars because design is believed to have been the result of an experience in the battle straightly pertaining to his propriety.
A publication in Hopkinson’s library at his home in Bordentown was taken by a Hessian soldier in December 1776, a dark year of the war. The soldier, one I. Ewald, wrote on the within cover that he had seen the author near Philadelphia as well as that he, Ewald, had actually taken the publication from a great country seat near Philadelphia. The soldier had composed above and also listed below Hopkinson’s bookplate, which had 3 six pointed stars as well as his family adage, “Semper Paratus”, or “Always Ready”.
In a letter to the Board of Admiralty in 1780 Hopkinson insisted that he had developed “the flag of the United States of America” along with a number of ornaments, devices, and checks appearing on bills of exchange, ship papers, the seals of the boards of Admiralty and also Treasury, and the Great Seal of the United States. Hopkinson had actually received nothing for this job, as well as now he sent a bill as well as asked “whether a Quarter Cask of the public wine” would certainly not be a practical and also appropriate reward for his labors.
Even so, no one can be so sure who created the American flag. The American flag is the spiritual emblem of the country. It represents the peoples’ birthright, their heritage of liberty bought with blood as well as sadness. The title deed of freedom, which is the nation’s to delight in and also keep in trust for posterity. Timeless vigilance is the cost of liberty. As you see the flag silhouetted against the tranquil skies of the country, you are reminded that the American flag stands for just what you are – no more, no less.
Top American Flags close to state of Michigan
As taken from the Star Spangled Banner:
O say can you see, by the dawn’s early light,
What so proudly we hailed at the twilight’s last gleaming,
Whose broad stripes and bright stars through the perilous fight,
O’er the ramparts we watched, were so gallantly streaming?
And the rockets’ red glare, the bombs bursting in air,
Gave proof through the night that our flag was still there;
O say does that star-spangled banner yet wave
O’er the land of the free and the home of the brave?
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