The background of the United States is large and complex, yet can be broken down into milestones as well as time periods that separated, unified, as well as altered the United States into the country it is today. The American flag didn’t resemble like it does now. Besides that, it undertook a great deal of adjustments as well as modifications.
The American Revolutionary War
Enter the American Revolution. Often described as the American War of Independence, or the Revolutionary War, it was a dispute which lasted from 1775-1783 and also permitted the original 13 colonies to remain independent from Great Britain. Beginning in Great Britain in the late 1790s, the Industrial Revolution at some point made its path to the United States as well as transformed the emphasis of the country’s economy as well as the way it produces products.
For more than a decade prior to the episode of the revolution in 1775, tensions had actually been developing in between colonists and the British authorities. These stress emerged from expanding tensions in between citizens of Great Britain’s 13 North American colonies and also the early american government (which stood for the British crown). Attempts by the British government to elevate earnings by taxing the colonies (significantly the Stamp Act of 1765, the Townshend Tariffs of 1767 and also the Tea Act of 1773) met heated protest among lots of colonists, who resented their lack of depiction in Parliament and required the exact same civil liberties as other British subjects. Colonial resistance brought about physical violence in 1770, when British soldiers opened fire on a mob of colonists, eliminating 5 people in what was called the Boston Massacre. After December 1773, when a band of Bostonians impersonated Mohawk Indians boarded British ships then unloaded 342 containers of tea into Boston Harbor, an annoyed Parliament passed a series of procedures (called the Intolerable, or Coercive Acts) made to reassert royal authority in Massachusetts.
The Continental Congress met in May 1775 as well as agreed to build an army. George Washington was made its commander-in-chief. Congress hoped they can require the British to work out however George III refused to compromise. Instead, in August 1775 he declared that all the American colonies were in a state of rebellion. At the same time, rule by royal governor broke down and also individuals demanded government without imperial intervention. In May 1776 Congress decided that imperial government needs to discontinue and government ought to be ‘under the authority of the people’. Ultimately the colonies prepared state constitutions to change their charters.
By June 1776, with the Revolutionary War in full swing, a growing bulk of the colonists had actually come to favor self-reliance from Britain. That same year Richard Henry Lee of the Virginia Assembly presented Congress with resolutions stating the self-reliance of the colonies, requiring a confederation as well as revealed the should find international allies for a war versus Britain. On July 4th, the Continental Congress voted to take on the Declaration of Independence, composed by a five-man board including Franklin as well as John Adams but composed mostly by Jefferson. By the fall of 1781, the American army had managed to compel the enemy to retreat to Virginia’s Yorktown peninsula, near where the York River empties into Chesapeake Bay. Backed up by a French military commanded by General Jean Baptiste de Rochambeau, Washington moved against Yorktown with a total amount of around 14,000 soldiers, while a fleet of 36 French warships offshore prevented British support or evacuation. Caught and subdued, the adversary was compelled to surrender their whole military. Stating disease, the British general sent his deputy, Charles O’Hara, to surrender; after O’Hara came close to Rochambeau to surrender his sword (the Frenchman deferred to Washington), Washington gave the nod to his own deputy, Benjamin Lincoln, who accepted it. After French assistance helped the Continental Army compel the British abandonment at Yorktown, Virginia, in 1781, the Americans had properly won their freedom, though the war would not formally end until 1783.
The motion for American independence effectively won at Yorktown, modern observers did not see that as the definitive triumph. British and American negotiators in Paris signed initial peace terms in Paris late that November, and also on September 3, 1783, Great Britain officially identified the freedom of the United States in the Treaty of Paris.
How the American Flag became
The American flag was made to stand for the brand-new union of the thirteen initial states: it would certainly have thirteen stripes, alternate red and white, and thirteen stars, white on a blue area. Among the first flags had actually the stars laid out in a circle, based on the suggestion that all colonies were equal. The thirteen stripes, resting side-by-side, represented the battle for independence; red stood for valor, white signified pureness and blue stood for loyalty.
In 1818, after a couple of design adjustments, the United States Congress chose to preserve the flag’s initial thirteen stripes and also include new stars to reflect each new state that got in the union.
While there is no doubt that the genuine Betsy Ross was worthy of interest in her very own right, it is the tale of Betsy sewing the first stars and stripes that has actually made her a remarkable historic number. The Betsy Ross story was offered public attention in 1870 by her grandson, William Canby, in a speech he made to the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. Canby and other participants of Betsy’s family members authorized sworn testimonies mentioning that they heard the story of the making of the first flag from Betsy’s very own mouth.
According to the oral history, in 1776, 3 men – George Washington, Robert Morris, as well as George Ross, saw Betsy Ross in her upholstery store. On a piece of paper Washington revealed, was a drawing of a flag with thirteen red as well as white stripes and also thirteen 6-pointed stars.
Washington asked if Betsy can make a flag from the style. Betsy reacted: “I do not know, however I will attempt.” This line was utilized in the sworn declarations of a lot of Betsy’s relatives, recommending that it is a direct quote from Betsy. As the story goes, Betsy suggested changing the stars to 5 points instead of six. She demonstrated to them how to do it with simply one snip of her scissors. They all agreed to transform the layout to have stars with 5 points.
However, some historians believe that it was Francis Hopkisnon that brought to life the concept of the Stars and Stripes. Francis Hopkinson was a prominent patriot, a legal representative, a Congressman from New Jersey, an endorser of the Declaration of Independence, poet, artist, and identified civil servant.
He was assigned to the Continental Navy Board on November 6,1776. It was while serving on the Continental Navy Board that he transformed his focus on developing the flag of the United States. Using stars in that design is believed to have actually been the outcome of an experience in the battle directly pertaining to his propriety.
A publication in Hopkinson’s collection at his home in Bordentown was taken by a Hessian soldier in December 1776, a dark year of the war. The book, Discourses on Public Occasions in America (London, 1762) by William Smith, D.D., had been a gift to him by the writer. The soldier, an I. Ewald, created on the inside cover that he had seen the writer near Philadelphia which he, Ewald, had taken the book from a great country seat near Philadelphia. The book was ultimately given to a person in Philadelphia that returned it to Hopkinson. The soldier had composed above and below Hopkinson’s bookplate, which had three six pointed stars and also his family motto, “Semper Paratus”, or “Always Ready”. The safe return of the book may well have represented to Hopkinson the rebirth of the Americans’ wish.
In a letter to the Board of Admiralty in 1780 Hopkinson asserted that he had made “the flag of the United States of America” in addition to several ornaments, devices, and checks appearing on bills of exchange, ship documents, the seals of the boards of Admiralty as well as Treasury, as well as the Great Seal of the United States. Hopkinson had received absolutely nothing for this job, as well as currently he submitted a bill as well as asked “whether a Quarter Cask of the public wine” would certainly not be a sensible as well as appropriate incentive for his labors.
Also so, nobody can be so certain who created the American flag. The American flag is the sacred symbol of the country. As you see the flag silhouetted in front of the serene skies of the country, you are reminded that the American flag stands for exactly what you are – no more, no less.
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As quoted from the Star Spangled Banner:
O say can you see, by the dawn’s early light,
What so proudly we hailed at the twilight’s last gleaming,
Whose broad stripes and bright stars through the perilous fight,
O’er the ramparts we watched, were so gallantly streaming?
And the rockets’ red glare, the bombs bursting in air,
Gave proof through the night that our flag was still there;
O say does that star-spangled banner yet wave
O’er the land of the free and the home of the brave?
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