The history of the United States is substantial as well as complex, but can be broken down right into milestones and time periods that split, combined, and also transformed the United States into the nation it is now. The American flag didn’t look like it does currently. Apart from that, it undertook a lot of changes and also alterations.
The American Revolutionary War
Enter the American Revolution. Sometimes referred to as the American War of Independence, or the Revolutionary War, it was a conflict which lasted from 1775-1783 and permitted the original 13 colonies to continue to be independent from Great Britain. Starting in Great Britain in the late 1790s, the Industrial Revolution at some point made its way to the United States as well as altered the emphasis of the nation’s economic situation and the means it makes products.
For greater than a decade before the episode of the revolution in 1775, conflict had been developing between colonists and the British authorities. These tensions emerged from expanding stress in between citizens of Great Britain’s 13 North American colonies as well as the early american government (which stood for the British crown). Efforts by the British government to elevate revenue by taxing the colonies (especially the Stamp Act of 1765, the Townshend Tariffs of 1767 and the Tea Act of 1773) consulted with heated protest amongst numerous colonists, who disliked their lack of depiction in Parliament and demanded the same civil liberties as other British people. Colonial resistance caused violence in 1770, when British soldiers opened fire on a crowd of colonists, eliminating 5 men in exactly what was known as the Boston Massacre. After December 1773, when a band of Bostonians dressed as Mohawk Indians boarded British ships then disposed 342 containers of tea into Boston Harbor, a furious Parliament passed a series of actions (called the Intolerable, or Coercive Acts) designed to reassert royal authority in Massachusetts.
The Continental Congress met in May 1775 and also accepted to build an army. George Washington was made its commander in chief. Congress wished they might require the British to work out but George III refused to compromise. Rather, in August 1775 he proclaimed that all the American colonies remained in a state of rebellion. On the other hand, rule by royal governor broke down and also the people required government without royal interference. In May 1776 Congress decided that royal government should discontinue and also government should be ‘for individuals’. Subsequently the colonies created state constitutions to change their charters.
By June 1776, with the Revolutionary War in progress, a growing majority of the colonists had come to favor self-reliance from Britain. That same year Richard Henry Lee of the Virginia Assembly provided Congress with resolutions proclaiming the independence of the colonies, asking for a confederation as well as expressed the have to discover international allies for a war against Britain. On July 4th, the Continental Congress elected to take on the Declaration of Independence, drafted by a five-man board consisting of Franklin and also John Adams but written mostly by Jefferson. By the fall of 1781, the American forces had actually begun to compel the adversary to retreat to Virginia’s Yorktown peninsula, near where the York River empties into Chesapeake Bay. Backed up by a French military commanded by General Jean Baptiste de Rochambeau, Washington moved against Yorktown with an overall of around 14,000 soldiers, while a fleet of 36 French battleships offshore avoided British support or evacuation. Trapped and also overpowered, the enemy was compelled to surrender their entire military. Stating ailments, the British general sent his deputy, Charles O’Hara, to surrender; after O’Hara came close to Rochambeau to surrender his sword (the Frenchman deferred to Washington), Washington gave the nod to his own replacement, Benjamin Lincoln, who accepted it. After French help assisted the Continental Army force the British abandonment at Yorktown, Virginia, in 1781, the Americans had effectively won their self-reliance, though the battle would certainly not officially finish up until 1783.
The motion for American independence effectively won at Yorktown, contemporary observers did not see that as the crucial victory. British as well as American arbitrators in Paris signed preliminary peace terms in Paris late that November, and on September 3, 1783, Great Britain formally acknowledged the freedom of the United States in the Treaty of Paris.
How the American Flag happened
The American flag was made to represent the new union of the thirteen original states: it would certainly have thirteen stripes, alternating red and white, as well as thirteen stars, white on a blue area. One of the initial flags had the stars arranged in a circle, based upon the concept that colonies were equal. The thirteen stripes, resting side-by-side, stood for the struggle for freedom; red represented valiance, white signified pureness and blue represented commitment.
In 1818, after a couple of design adjustments, the United States Congress decided to maintain the flag’s initial thirteen stripes as well as add brand-new stars to show each new state that joined the union.
While there is no question that the actual Betsy Ross deserved interest in her own right, it is the legend of Betsy sewing the initial stars and stripes that has actually made her a memorable historic number. The Betsy Ross tale was given public attention in 1870 by her grandson, William Canby, in a speech he made to the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. Canby and also various other participants of Betsy’s household signed vouched testimonies stating that they heard the tale of the production of the first flag from Betsy’s own mouth.
According to the narrative history, in 1776, 3 men – George Washington, Robert Morris, as well as George Ross, saw Betsy Ross in her furniture store. She escorted them to her parlor, where they could have a private meeting. Here, Washington pulled a folded paper from his inside coat pocket. On it, was a drawing of a flag with thirteen red as well as white stripes and also thirteen 6-pointed stars.
Washington asked if Betsy can make a flag from the style. Betsy responded: “I do not know, yet I will certainly attempt.” This line was made use of in the vouched declarations of most of Betsy’s family members, suggesting that it is a straight quote from Betsy. As the tale goes, Betsy suggested changing the stars to 5 points rather than 6. She demonstrated to them the best ways to do it with just one snip of her scissors. They all agreed to transform the style to have stars with five points.
Some chroniclers think that it was Francis Hopkisnon that offered birth to the idea of the Stars and Stripes. Francis Hopkinson was a preferred patriot, an attorney, a Congressman from New Jersey, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, poet, artist, and also identified civil servant.
He was selected to the Continental Navy Board on November 6,1776. It was while serving on the Continental Navy Board that he turned his focus on developing the flag of the United States. Using stars in that design is thought to have actually been the outcome of an experience in the battle straightly related to his propriety.
A book in Hopkinson’s collection at his residence in Bordentown was taken by a Hessian soldier in December 1776, a dark year of the battle. The soldier, one I. Ewald, created on the within cover that he had seen the author near Philadelphia as well as that he, Ewald, had actually taken the book from a great country seat near Philadelphia. The soldier had written above and below Hopkinson’s bookplate, which had three six pointed stars and also his family adage, “Semper Paratus”, or “Always Ready”.
In a letter to the Board of Admiralty in 1780 Hopkinson asserted that he had actually developed “the flag of the United States of America” along with numerous ornaments, devices, and checks appearing on bills of exchange, ship documents, the seals of the boards of Admiralty and also Treasury, and the Great Seal of the United States. Hopkinson had gotten nothing for this work, and now he submitted a bill and also asked “whether a Quarter Cask of the public wine” would not be a practical and proper reward for his labors.
Nevertheless, nobody can be so sure that produced the American flag. The American flag is the spiritual symbol of the nation. It symbolizes the citizens’ birthright, their heritage of liberty acquired with blood and also sorrow. The title deed of freedom, which is the country’s to appreciate and hold in trust for posterity. Eternal alertness is the cost of freedom. As you see the flag silhouetted in front of the peaceful skies of the country, you are reminded that the American flag means exactly what you are – no more, no much less.
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As quoted from the Star Spangled Banner:
O say can you see, by the dawn’s early light,
What so proudly we hailed at the twilight’s last gleaming,
Whose broad stripes and bright stars through the perilous fight,
O’er the ramparts we watched, were so gallantly streaming?
And the rockets’ red glare, the bombs bursting in air,
Gave proof through the night that our flag was still there;
O say does that star-spangled banner yet wave
O’er the land of the free and the home of the brave?
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