The history of the United States is large and intricate, however can be broken down right into moments and also time periods that split, merged, as well as altered the United States into the country it is today. The American flag really did not appear like it does currently. Apart from that, it went through a great deal of changes and also adjustments.
The American Revolutionary War
Enter the American Revolution. Often referred to as the American War of Independence, or the Revolutionary War, it was a conflict which lasted from 1775-1783 and permitted the original 13 colonies to remain independent from Great Britain. Beginning in Great Britain in the late 1790s, the Industrial Revolution ultimately made its path to the United States and transformed the emphasis of the nation’s economic situation as well as the method it makes products.
These tensions emerged from expanding tensions between residents of Great Britain’s 13 North American colonies and also the early american government (which represented the British crown). Efforts by the British federal government to raise earnings by collectin tax from the colonies (especially the Stamp Act of 1765, the Townshend Tariffs of 1767 and the Tea Act of 1773) met with negative objection amongst numerous colonists, that resented their absence of depiction in Parliament as well as demanded the same civil liberties as other British subjects.
George Washington was made its leader. Congress hoped they might compel the British to work out but George III refused to negotiate. Instead, in August 1775 he declared that all the American colonies were in a state of disobedience.
By June 1776, with the Revolutionary War in progress, a growing majority of the colonists had pertained to prefer independence from Britain. That same year Richard Henry Lee of the Virginia Assembly provided Congress with resolutions stating the self-reliance of the colonies, calling for a confederation as well as expressed the have to find international allies for a war against Britain. On July 4th, the Continental Congress elected to adopt the Declaration of Independence, prepared by a five-man committee consisting of Franklin and John Adams however composed generally by Jefferson. By the fall of 1781, the American army had actually managed to require the opponent to retreat to Virginia’s Yorktown peninsula, near where the York River empties into Chesapeake Bay. Supported by a French army commanded by General Jean Baptiste de Rochambeau, Washington moved against Yorktown with an overall of around 14,000 soldiers, while a fleet of 36 French battleships offshore stopped British reinforcement or evacuation. Caught as well as overpowered, the adversary was forced to surrender their entire military. Claiming disease, the British general sent his deputy, Charles O’Hara, to give up; after O’Hara approached Rochambeau to surrender his sword (the Frenchman deferred to Washington), Washington gave the nod to his very own deputy, Benjamin Lincoln, that accepted it. After French support helped the Continental Army require the British abandonment at Yorktown, Virginia, in 1781, the Americans had actually efficiently won their self-reliance, though the battle would certainly not formally finish up until 1783.
The movement for American independence properly won at Yorktown, contemporary historians did not see that as the decisive victory. British and American arbitrators in Paris signed preliminary peace terms in Paris late that November, and also on September 3, 1783, Great Britain officially acknowledged the independence of the United States in the Treaty of Paris.
How the American Flag came to be
The American flag was made to represent the new union of the thirteen initial states: it would have thirteen stripes, alternating red as well as white, and thirteen stars, white on a blue field. Among the first flags had actually the stars laid out in a circle, based on the idea that all colonies were equal. The thirteen stripes, resting side-by-side, represented the struggle for independence; red stood for valor, white signified purity as well as blue stood for loyalty.
In 1818, after a couple of design changes, the United States Congress decided to keep the flag’s original thirteen stripes and also add brand-new stars to show each brand-new state that joined the union.
While there is no doubt that the genuine Betsy Ross was worthy of interest in her own right, it is the tale of Betsy stitching the initial stars and stripes that has actually made her an extraordinary historical figure. The Betsy Ross tale was brought to public attention in 1870 by her grand son, William Canby, in a speech he made to the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. Canby as well as various other participants of Betsy’s family signed sworn testimonies stating that they heard the story of the production of the very first flag from Betsy’s very own mouth.
According to the narrative history, in 1776, three men – George Washington, Robert Morris, and also George Ross, visited Betsy Ross in her upholstery store. She escorted them to her parlor, where they could have a private meeting. Here, Washington pulled a folded up piece of paper from his inside coat pocket. On it, was a drawing of a flag with thirteen red as well as white stripes as well as thirteen six-pointed stars.
Washington asked if Betsy could make a flag from the style. Betsy reacted: “I don’t know, yet I will certainly try.” This line was utilized in the vouched declarations of a lot of Betsy’s relatives, suggesting that it is a direct quote from Betsy. As the tale goes, Betsy recommended changing the stars to 5 points rather than 6. She demonstrated to them ways to do it with just one snip of her scissors. They all accepted to transform the layout to have stars with 5 points.
Some chroniclers think that it was Francis Hopkisnon that offered birth to the idea of the Stars and Stripes. Francis Hopkinson was a preferred patriot, an attorney, a Congressman from New Jersey, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, poet, artist, and distinguished civil servant.
He was appointed to the Continental Navy Board on November 6,1776. It was while serving on the Continental Navy Board that he turned his attention to developing the flag of the United States. Using stars in that design is thought to have actually been the outcome of an experience in the war straightly related to his propriety.
A book in Hopkinson’s library at his home in Bordentown was taken by a Hessian soldier in December 1776, a dark year of the battle. The book, Discourses on Public Occasions in America (London, 1762) by William Smith, D.D., had been a present to him by the author. The soldier, an I. Ewald, composed on the within cover that he had seen the author near Philadelphia which he, Ewald, had taken the book from a fine country seat near Philadelphia. The book was subsequently offered to someone in Philadelphia who returned it to Hopkinson. The soldier had actually composed over and below Hopkinson’s bookplate, which had three 6 pointed stars as well as his family motto, “Semper Paratus”, or “Always Ready”. The secure return of the book could well have represented to Hopkinson the rebirth of the Americans’ hope.
In a letter to the Board of Admiralty in 1780 Hopkinson asserted that he had actually made “the flag of the United States of America” along with numerous ornaments, devices, and checks appearing on bills of exchange, ship papers, the seals of the boards of Admiralty and Treasury, and also the Great Seal of the United States. Hopkinson had obtained absolutely nothing for this work, and also now he sent a bill as well as asked “whether a Quarter Cask of the public wine” would not be a practical as well as appropriate reward for his labors.
Even so, nobody could be so certain who produced the American flag. The American flag is the sacred symbol of the country. As you see the flag silhouetted against the calm skies of the nation, you are reminded that the American flag stands for exactly what you are – no more, no much less.
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As quoted from the Star Spangled Banner:
O say can you see, by the dawn’s early light,
What so proudly we hailed at the twilight’s last gleaming,
Whose broad stripes and bright stars through the perilous fight,
O’er the ramparts we watched, were so gallantly streaming?
And the rockets’ red glare, the bombs bursting in air,
Gave proof through the night that our flag was still there;
O say does that star-spangled banner yet wave
O’er the land of the free and the home of the brave?
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