The history of the United States is substantial and also complicated, but can be broken down into moments and also time periods that split, unified, and changed the United States into the nation it is now. The American flag really did not look like it does currently. Other than that, it undertook a lot of changes as well as adjustments.
The American Revolutionary War
Enter the American Revolution. In some cases described as the American War of Independence, or the Revolutionary War, it was a war which lasted from 1775-1783 as well as permitted the original 13 colonies to remain independent from Great Britain. Beginning in Great Britain in the late 1790s, the Industrial Revolution eventually made its path to the United States and changed the focus of the country’s economic situation and the way it produces items.
These tensions developed from growing tensions in between residents of Great Britain’s 13 North American colonies and also the colonial government (which stood for the British crown). Attempts by the British government to raise income by taxing the colonies (significantly the Stamp Act of 1765, the Townshend Tariffs of 1767 as well as the Tea Act of 1773) met with heated demonstration among lots of colonists, that disliked their lack of representation in Parliament and also demanded the same legal rights as various other British subjects.
George Washington was made its commander-in-chief. Congress wished they could force the British to work out but George III rejected to negotiate. Instead, in August 1775 he proclaimed that all the American colonies were in a state of rebellion.
By the fall of 1781, the American army had managed to require the enemy to retreat to Virginia’s Yorktown peninsula, near where the York River clears into Chesapeake Bay. Claiming health problems, the British general sent his replacement, Charles O’Hara, to surrender; after O’Hara approached Rochambeau to surrender his sword (the Frenchman deferred to Washington), Washington provided the nod to his own deputy, Benjamin Lincoln, who accepted it. After French help helped the Continental Army force the British surrender at Yorktown, Virginia, in 1781, the Americans had properly won their self-reliance, though combatting would not formally end til 1783.
The motion for American independence properly won at Yorktown, modern historians did not see that as the crucial triumph. British as well as American negotiators in Paris authorized initial peace terms in Paris late that November, and also on September 3, 1783, Great Britain officially identified the independence of the United States in the Treaty of Paris.
How the American Flag came to be
The American flag was designed to represent the brand-new union of the thirteen initial states: it would have thirteen stripes, alternate red and also white, and also thirteen stars, white on a blue area. One of the initial flags had the stars arranged in a circle, based upon the idea that all colonies were equal. The thirteen stripes, resting side-by-side, stood for the battle for freedom; red stood for valiance, white signified pureness as well as blue stood for loyalty.
In 1818, after a few design modifications, the United States Congress chose to maintain the flag’s original thirteen stripes and add brand-new stars to show each brand-new state that entered the union.
While there is no doubt that the real Betsy Ross was worthy of interest in her own right, it is the legend of Betsy stitching the very first stars and stripes that has made her an extraordinary historic number. The Betsy Ross tale was brought to spotlight in 1870 by her grandson, William Canby, in a speech he made to the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. Canby and other members of Betsy’s family authorized sworn testimonies specifying that they heard the story of the production of the first flag from Betsy’s own mouth.
According to the dental history, in 1776, three men – George Washington, Robert Morris, and George Ross, saw Betsy Ross in her furniture shop. On a paper Washington revealed, was an illustration of a flag with thirteen red and white stripes as well as thirteen six-pointed stars.
Washington asked if Betsy could make a flag from the layout. Betsy reacted: “I don’t know, but I will certainly try.” This line was used in the vouched declarations of numerous of Betsy’s family members, recommending that it is a direct quote from Betsy. As the tale goes, Betsy recommended transforming the stars to five points instead compared to 6.
Some people think that it was Francis Hopkisnon that gave birth to the suggestion of the Stars and Stripes. Francis Hopkinson was a popular patriot, a lawyer, a Congressman from New Jersey, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, poet, musician, and also identified civil servant.
He was selected to the Continental Navy Board on November 6,1776. It was while working on the Continental Navy Board that he transformed his attention to designing the flag of the United States. Making use of stars in that style is thought to have actually been the outcome of an experience in the battle straightly pertaining to his propriety.
A book in Hopkinson’s library at his home in Bordentown was taken by a Hessian soldier in December 1776, a dark year of the war. The book, Discourses on Public Occasions in America (London, 1762) by William Smith, D.D., had actually been a gift to him by the writer. The soldier, an I. Ewald, wrote on the inside cover that he had seen the writer near Philadelphia and that he, Ewald, had taken the book from a fine country seat near Philadelphia. The book was ultimately offered to somebody in Philadelphia who returned it to Hopkinson. The soldier had composed above and listed below Hopkinson’s bookplate, which had 3 six pointed stars and his household motto, “Semper Paratus”, or “Always Ready”. The secure return of the book could well have actually symbolized to Hopkinson the revival of the Americans’ wish.
In a letter to the Board of Admiralty in 1780 Hopkinson asserted that he had actually developed “the flag of the United States of America” in addition to a number of ornaments, devices, and checks appearing on bills of exchange, ship papers, the seals of the boards of Admiralty and Treasury, and the Great Seal of the United States. Hopkinson had actually obtained nothing for this work, as well as currently he submitted a bill as well as asked “whether a Quarter Cask of the public wine” would certainly not be a practical and appropriate incentive for his labors.
Also so, nobody can be so certain that created the American flag. The American flag is the sacred symbol of the nation. As you see the flag silhouetted in front of the serene skies of the country, you are reminded that the American flag stands for what you are – no more, no less.
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As taken from the Star Spangled Banner:
O say can you see, by the dawn’s early light,
What so proudly we hailed at the twilight’s last gleaming,
Whose broad stripes and bright stars through the perilous fight,
O’er the ramparts we watched, were so gallantly streaming?
And the rockets’ red glare, the bombs bursting in air,
Gave proof through the night that our flag was still there;
O say does that star-spangled banner yet wave
O’er the land of the free and the home of the brave?
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