The background of the United States is substantial and also complex, yet can be broken down right into milestones as well as periods that divided, combined, and altered the United States into the country it is today. The American flag did not look like it does currently. Aside from that, it went through a lot of changes and also alterations.
The American Revolutionary War
Enter the American Revolution. Occasionally described as the American War of Independence, or the Revolutionary War, it was a conflict which lasted from 1775-1783 as well as permitted the original 13 colonies to continue to be independent from Great Britain. Beginning in Great Britain in the late 1790s, the Industrial Revolution ultimately made its path to the United States and altered the focus of the nation’s economic climate and also the way it manufactures products.
For greater than a decade prior to the outbreak of the revolution in 1775, tensions had been building in between colonists and also the British authorities. These tensions developed from expanding stress between citizens of Great Britain’s 13 North American colonies and the colonial government (which stood for the British crown). Attempts by the British government to increase income by collecting tax from the colonies (especially the Stamp Act of 1765, the Townshend Tariffs of 1767 and the Tea Act of 1773) met heated protest amongst several colonists, that disliked their lack of representation in Parliament as well as demanded the exact same legal rights as other British people. Colonial resistance caused violence in 1770, when British soldiers opened fire on a mob of colonists, killing five men in what was known as the Boston Massacre. After December 1773, when a band of Bostonians dressed as Mohawk Indians boarded British ships then unloaded 342 containers of tea right into Boston Harbor, an outraged Parliament passed a series of procedures (called the Intolerable, or Coercive Acts) designed to reassert royal authority in Massachusetts.
The Continental Congress convened in May 1775 and also consented to create an army. George Washington was made its commander-in-chief. Congress hoped they might require the British to discuss yet George III chose not to negotiate. Rather, in August 1775 he proclaimed that all the American colonies remained in a state of rebellion. Rule by royal governor broke down and the people required government without royal intervention. In May 1776 Congress made a decision that royal government must cease and also government should be ‘for individuals’. Ultimately the colonies prepared state constitutions to replace their charters.
By the fall of 1781, the American forces had actually begun to compel the enemy to withdraw to Virginia’s Yorktown peninsula, near where the York River empties into Chesapeake Bay. Stating ailments, the British general sent his deputy, Charles O’Hara, to give up; after O’Hara approached Rochambeau to surrender his sword (the Frenchman deferred to Washington), Washington provided the nod to his very own deputy, Benjamin Lincoln, who accepted it. After French support aided the Continental Army require the British surrender at Yorktown, Virginia, in 1781, the Americans had efficiently won their freedom, though combatting would certainly not officially end til 1783.
The movement for American independence successfully triumphed at Yorktown, modern historians did not see that as the decisive success. British and also American mediators in Paris authorized preliminary peace terms in Paris late that November, as well as on September 3, 1783, Great Britain formally recognized the independence of the United States in the Treaty of Paris.
Just how the American Flag happened
The American flag was created to represent the new union of the thirteen original states: it would have thirteen stripes, alternate red and also white, and thirteen stars, white on a blue field. One of the initial flags had actually the stars laid out in a circle, based on the idea that colonies were equal. The thirteen stripes, laid out side-by-side, represented the struggle for freedom; red represented valor, white signified purity and blue represented loyalty.
In 1818, after a few layout changes, the United States Congress chose to retain the flag’s initial thirteen stripes as well as include new stars to show each brand-new state that joined the union.
While there is no doubt that the actual Betsy Ross was worthy of interest in her own right, it is the legend of Betsy stitching the very first stars and stripes that has made her a memorable historic figure. The Betsy Ross tale was brought to public attention in 1870 by her grandson, William Canby, in a speech he made to the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. Canby and other members of Betsy’s family authorized vouched affidavits mentioning that they listened to the tale of the making of the first flag from Betsy’s very own mouth.
Based on the oral history, in 1776, three men – George Washington, Robert Morris, and George Ross, checked out Betsy Ross in her furniture shop. She escorted them to her parlor, where they can have a private meeting. Right here, Washington pulled a folded paper from his inside jacket pocket. On it, was a sketch of a flag with thirteen red and also white stripes and also thirteen six-pointed stars.
Washington asked if Betsy could make a flag from the style. Betsy reacted: “I do not know, but I will certainly attempt.” This line was used in the vouched declarations of much of Betsy’s relatives, recommending that it is a direct quote from Betsy. As the tale goes, Betsy recommended transforming the stars to five points rather than six. She demonstrated to them how to do it with simply one snip of her scissors. They all accepted to transform the style to have stars with five points.
Nevertheless, some chroniclers believe that it was Francis Hopkisnon that brought to life the suggestion of the Stars and Stripes. Francis Hopkinson was a prominent patriot, a lawyer, a Congressman from New Jersey, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, poet, musician, as well as identified civil servant.
He was selected to the Continental Navy Board on November 6,1776. It was while serving on the Continental Navy Board that he turned his focus on making the flag of the United States. Using stars in that design is thought to have been the result of an experience in the war straightly related to his propriety.
A publication in Hopkinson’s collection at his house in Bordentown was taken by a Hessian soldier in December 1776, a dark year of the battle. The soldier, one I. Ewald, wrote on the inside cover that he had actually seen the writer near Philadelphia and that he, Ewald, had taken the publication from a great nation seat near Philadelphia. The soldier had composed above and below Hopkinson’s bookplate, which had three six pointed stars and his family slogan, “Semper Paratus”, or “Always Ready”.
In a letter to the Board of Admiralty in 1780 Hopkinson asserted that he had created “the flag of the United States of America” as well as several ornaments, devices, and checks showing up on bills of exchange, ship papers, the seals of the boards of Admiralty and also Treasury, and also the Great Seal of the United States. Hopkinson had actually obtained nothing for this work, and currently he submitted a bill and also asked “whether a Quarter Cask of the public wine” would certainly not be a sensible and also proper reward for his labors.
Even so, no one could be so certain who produced the American flag. The American flag is the sacred symbol of the country. As you see the flag silhouetted against the serene skies of the country, you are reminded that the American flag stands for what you are – no more, no much less.
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As quoted from the Star Spangled Banner:
O say can you see, by the dawn’s early light,
What so proudly we hailed at the twilight’s last gleaming,
Whose broad stripes and bright stars through the perilous fight,
O’er the ramparts we watched, were so gallantly streaming?
And the rockets’ red glare, the bombs bursting in air,
Gave proof through the night that our flag was still there;
O say does that star-spangled banner yet wave
O’er the land of the free and the home of the brave?
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