The history of the United States is vast and also complex, but can be broken down right into moments as well as periods that separated, linked, and transformed the United States into the nation it is today. The American flag didn’t look like it does now. Besides that, it underwent a great deal of adjustments and alterations.
The American Revolutionary War
Enter the American Revolution. Sometimes described as the American War of Independence, or the Revolutionary War, it was a dispute which lasted from 1775-1783 as well as enabled the original 13 colonies to continue to be independent from Great Britain. Beginning in Great Britain in the late 1790s, the Industrial Revolution ultimately made its way to the United States and also transformed the emphasis of the country’s economy and the method it manufactures products.
These tensions developed from expanding stress in between locals of Great Britain’s 13 North American colonies as well as the colonial government (which stood for the British crown). Attempts by the British government to raise revenue by taxing the colonies (significantly the Stamp Act of 1765, the Townshend Tariffs of 1767 and the Tea Act of 1773) met with heated protest amongst numerous colonists, that disliked their absence of depiction in Parliament and also required the exact same rights as various other British citizens.
George Washington was made its leader. Congress hoped they could require the British to discuss but George III rejected to negotiate. Instead, in August 1775 he stated that all the American colonies were in a state of rebellion.
By June 1776, with the Revolutionary War in progress, a growing majority of the colonists had actually pertained to favor freedom from Britain. That very same year Richard Henry Lee of the Virginia Assembly presented Congress with resolutions stating the self-reliance of the colonies, requiring a confederation and also revealed the need to find foreign allies for a war versus Britain. On July 4th, the Continental Congress voted to take on the Declaration of Independence, prepared by a five-man committee consisting of Franklin and also John Adams however created mostly by Jefferson. By the autumn of 1781, the American army had begun to compel the enemy to withdraw to Virginia’s Yorktown peninsula, near where the York River clears into Chesapeake Bay. Backed up by a French army commanded by General Jean Baptiste de Rochambeau, Washington moved against Yorktown with a total of around 14,000 soldiers, while a fleet of 36 French battleships offshore prevented British reinforcement or evacuation. Trapped and subdued, the adversary was forced to surrender their entire military. Claiming health problems, the British general sent his replacement, Charles O’Hara, to surrender; after O’Hara approached Rochambeau to surrender his sword (the Frenchman deferred to Washington), Washington gave the nod to his own deputy, Benjamin Lincoln, that accepted it. After French assistance assisted the Continental Army compel the British abandonment at Yorktown, Virginia, in 1781, the Americans had actually successfully won their independence, though the battle would certainly not formally finish til 1783.
The motion for American freedom efficiently won at Yorktown, contemporary historians did not see that as the definitive triumph. British forces remained stationed around Charleston, and the effective main military still stayed in New York. The British removal of their soldiers from Charleston and Savannah in late 1782 ultimately indicated the end of the conflict. British as well as American arbitrators in Paris authorized initial peace terms in Paris late that November, and on September 3, 1783, Great Britain formally acknowledged the freedom of the United States in the Treaty of Paris. At the same time, Britain signed separate peace treaties with France and Spain (which had actually gotten in the dispute in 1779), bringing the American Revolution to a close after eight long years.
How the American Flag happened
The American flag was designed to stand for the new union of the thirteen initial states: it would have thirteen stripes, alternate red and also white, as well as thirteen stars, white on a blue field. One of the initial flags had actually the stars laid out in a circle, based on the suggestion that all colonies were equal. The thirteen stripes, laid out side by side, stood for the struggle for independence; red represented valor, white signified pureness and also blue represented loyalty.
In 1818, after a few style modifications, the United States Congress chose to retain the flag’s initial thirteen stripes and include brand-new stars to reflect each new state that entered the union.
While there is no question that the genuine Betsy Ross deserved interest in her own right, it is the legend of Betsy sewing the very first stars and stripes that has made her an extraordinary historical figure. The Betsy Ross tale was offered spotlight in 1870 by her grandson, William Canby, in a speech he made to the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. Canby and various other members of Betsy’s family authorized vouched affidavits specifying that they heard the tale of the making of the very first flag from Betsy’s very own mouth.
According to the narrative history, in 1776, 3 men – George Washington, Robert Morris, and George Ross, went to Betsy Ross in her upholstery shop. She escorted them to her parlor, where they could have a private meeting. Right here, Washington pulled a folded paper from his inside jacket pocket. On it, was a drawing of a flag with thirteen red and also white stripes as well as thirteen 6-pointed stars.
Washington asked if Betsy can make a flag from the layout. Betsy responded: “I don’t know, yet I will attempt.” This line was used in the sworn statements of most of Betsy’s family members, recommending that it is a straight quote from Betsy. As the story goes, Betsy recommended transforming the stars to five points instead of 6. She showed them the best ways to do it with simply one snip of her scissors. They all accepted to change the style to have stars with 5 points.
Some chroniclers believe that it was Francis Hopkisnon that offered birth to the idea of the Stars and Stripes. Francis Hopkinson was a popular patriot, a legal representative, a Congressman from New Jersey, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, poet, musician, and also identified civil servant.
He was designated to the Continental Navy Board on November 6,1776. It was while serving on the Continental Navy Board that he transformed his attention to making the flag of the United States. The use of stars in that design is thought to have been the result of an experience in the war directly related to his propriety.
A publication in Hopkinson’s library at his home in Bordentown was taken by a Hessian soldier in December 1776, a dark year of the war. The soldier, one I. Ewald, composed on the within cover that he had seen the writer near Philadelphia and that he, Ewald, had actually taken the book from a fine country seat near Philadelphia. The soldier had composed above and also listed below Hopkinson’s bookplate, which had 3 six pointed stars and also his family motto, “Semper Paratus”, or “Always Ready”.
In a letter to the Board of Admiralty in 1780 Hopkinson asserted that he had actually made “the flag of the United States of America” along with numerous ornaments, devices, and checks showing up on bills of exchange, ship documents, the seals of the boards of Admiralty and Treasury, and also the Great Seal of the United States. Hopkinson had actually gotten nothing for this job, and also currently he submitted a bill as well as asked “whether a Quarter Cask of the public wine” would certainly not be a practical and proper reward for his labors.
However, no one can be so certain that produced the American flag. The American flag is the spiritual symbol of the country. It represents the citizens’ birthright, their heritage of liberty purchased with blood as well as sadness. The title deed of liberty, which is the nation’s to appreciate as well as keep in trust for posterity. Infinite watchfulness is the price of liberty. As you see the flag silhouetted in front of the calm skies of the nation, you are reminded that the American flag represents exactly what you are – no more, no much less.
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As quoted from the Star Spangled Banner:
O say can you see, by the dawn’s early light,
What so proudly we hailed at the twilight’s last gleaming,
Whose broad stripes and bright stars through the perilous fight,
O’er the ramparts we watched, were so gallantly streaming?
And the rockets’ red glare, the bombs bursting in air,
Gave proof through the night that our flag was still there;
O say does that star-spangled banner yet wave
O’er the land of the free and the home of the brave?
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