The background of the United States is substantial as well as complicated, yet can be broken down right into moments and periods that divided, unified, and also transformed the United States right into the nation it is today. The American flag did not look like it does now. Aside from that, it went through a great deal of modifications and modifications.
The American Revolutionary War
Enter the American Revolution. In some cases referred to as the American War of Independence, or the Revolutionary War, it was a war which lasted from 1775-1783 and also enabled the original 13 colonies to remain independent from Great Britain. Beginning in Great Britain in the late 1790s, the Industrial Revolution ultimately made its way to the United States and altered the emphasis of the nation’s economy as well as the method it makes items.
For greater than 10 years prior to the outbreak of the revolution in 1775, tensions had been developing in between colonists and also the British authorities. These stress arose from expanding tensions in between residents of Great Britain’s 13 North American colonies as well as the early american government (which stood for the British crown). Attempts by the British government to raise profits by taxing the colonies (especially the Stamp Act of 1765, the Townshend Tariffs of 1767 as well as the Tea Act of 1773) consulted with negative protest among lots of colonists, that disliked their lack of representation in Parliament and required the same rights as other British citizens. Colonial resistance brought about physical violence in 1770, when British soldiers opened fire on a mob of colonists, eliminating five men in exactly what was known as the Boston Massacre. After December 1773, when a band of Bostonians impersonated Mohawk Indians boarded British ships then discarded 342 containers of tea right into Boston Harbor, an annoyed Parliament passed a collection of procedures (referred to as the Intolerable, or Coercive Acts) developed to reassert imperial authority in Massachusetts.
George Washington was made its commander-in-chief. Congress wished they could compel the British to negotiate but George III declined to compromise. Instead, in August 1775 he proclaimed that all the American colonies were in a state of rebellion.
By June 1776, with the Revolutionary War in full swing, a growing majority of the colonists had come to favor freedom from Britain. That exact same year Richard Henry Lee of the Virginia Assembly offered Congress with resolutions declaring the freedom of the colonies, asking for a confederation as well as shared the need to find international allies for a battle against Britain. On July 4th, the Continental Congress elected to embrace the Declaration of Independence, drafted by a five-man committee including Franklin and also John Adams but composed mainly by Jefferson. By the autumn of 1781, the American forces had actually managed to force the enemy to withdraw to Virginia’s Yorktown peninsula, near where the York River clears right into Chesapeake Bay. Backed up by a French army led by General Jean Baptiste de Rochambeau, Washington moved against Yorktown with a total of around 14,000 soldiers, while a fleet of 36 French warships offshore avoided British support or evacuation. Trapped as well as subdued, the adversary was required to surrender their entire military. Stating illness, the British general sent his replacement, Charles O’Hara, to give up; after O’Hara approached Rochambeau to surrender his sword (the Frenchman deferred to Washington), Washington gave the nod to his own replacement, Benjamin Lincoln, that accepted it. After French aid assisted the Continental Army require the British surrender at Yorktown, Virginia, in 1781, the Americans had properly won their independence, though fighting would certainly not formally end til 1783.
The motion for American independence properly triumphed at Yorktown, contemporary observers did not see that as the definitive victory. British forces stayed stationed around Charleston, and also the effective main military still stayed in New York. The British removal of their troops from Charleston as well as Savannah in late 1782 lastly indicated completion of the dispute. British as well as American negotiators in Paris signed preliminary peace terms in Paris late that November, and also on September 3, 1783, Great Britain officially identified the independence of the United States in the Treaty of Paris. At the same time, Britain authorized separate peace treaties with France as well as Spain (which had entered the dispute in 1779), bringing the American Revolution to a close after 8 long years.
Exactly how the American Flag happened
The American flag was created to stand for the new union of the thirteen initial states: it would certainly have thirteen stripes, alternate red and also white, as well as thirteen stars, white on a blue area. Among the first flags had actually the stars laid out in a circle, based on the concept that colonies were equal. The thirteen stripes, resting side by side, stood for the battle for freedom; red meant valiance, white signified purity and blue stood for commitment.
In 1818, after a couple of design adjustments, the United States Congress decided to retain the flag’s initial thirteen stripes as well as add brand-new stars to show each new state that entered the union.
While there is no question that the actual Betsy Ross was worthy of interest in her own right, it is the legend of Betsy stitching the first stars and stripes that has made her an extraordinary historical figure. The Betsy Ross story was given public attention in 1870 by her grand son, William Canby, in a speech he made to the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. Canby and various other participants of Betsy’s household signed vouched affidavits specifying that they heard the tale of the production of the initial flag from Betsy’s own mouth.
According to the narrative history, in 1776, 3 men – George Washington, Robert Morris, and also George Ross, went to Betsy Ross in her furniture store. She escorted them to her parlor, where they might have a private meeting. Here, Washington took a folded up paper from his inside coat pocket. On it, was an illustration of a flag with thirteen red and white stripes as well as thirteen six-pointed stars.
Washington asked if Betsy can make a flag from the style. Betsy reacted: “I do not know, yet I will try.” This line was used in the vouched statements of many of Betsy’s relatives, suggesting that it is a direct quote from Betsy. As the story goes, Betsy recommended altering the stars to 5 points rather than six. She demonstrated to them the best ways to do it with just one snip of her scissors. They all accepted to change the style to have stars with five points.
Nonetheless, some people think that it was Francis Hopkisnon that brought to life the idea of the Stars and Stripes. Francis Hopkinson was a prominent patriot, a lawyer, a Congressman from New Jersey, an endorser of the Declaration of Independence, poet, artist, as well as identified civil servant.
He was appointed to the Continental Navy Board on November 6,1776. It was while working on the Continental Navy Board that he transformed his attention to creating the flag of the United States. Using stars because layout is thought to have actually been the result of an experience in the battle directly related to his propriety.
A book in Hopkinson’s collection at his house in Bordentown was taken by a Hessian soldier in December 1776, a dark year of the battle. The soldier, an I. Ewald, created on the within cover that he had seen the author near Philadelphia as well as that he, Ewald, had taken the publication from a great nation seat near Philadelphia. The soldier had composed over as well as below Hopkinson’s bookplate, which had 3 six pointed stars as well as his household motto, “Semper Paratus”, or “Always Ready”.
In a letter to the Board of Admiralty in 1780 Hopkinson insisted that he had made “the flag of the United States of America” along with numerous ornaments, devices, and checks showing up on bills of exchange, ship documents, the seals of the boards of Admiralty and Treasury, and the Great Seal of the United States. Hopkinson had actually obtained absolutely nothing for this work, and currently he sent a bill and asked “whether a Quarter Cask of the public wine” would certainly not be a reasonable as well as correct reward for his labors.
Even so, no one could be so certain that developed the American flag. The American flag is the spiritual symbol of the country. As you see the flag silhouetted in front of the peaceful skies of the country, you are reminded that the American flag stands for exactly what you are – no more, no less.
Top American Flags around Massachusetts state
As taken from the Star Spangled Banner:
O say can you see, by the dawn’s early light,
What so proudly we hailed at the twilight’s last gleaming,
Whose broad stripes and bright stars through the perilous fight,
O’er the ramparts we watched, were so gallantly streaming?
And the rockets’ red glare, the bombs bursting in air,
Gave proof through the night that our flag was still there;
O say does that star-spangled banner yet wave
O’er the land of the free and the home of the brave?
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