The history of the United States is substantial and complicated, yet can be broken down right into moments as well as periods that split, linked, and changed the United States into the country it is now. The American flag did not look like it does now. Other than that, it underwent a lot of modifications and also adjustments.
The American Revolutionary War
Enter the American Revolution. Occasionally referred to as the American War of Independence, or the Revolutionary War, it was a war which lasted from 1775-1783 as well as enabled the initial 13 colonies to stay independent from Great Britain. Starting in Great Britain in the late 1790s, the Industrial Revolution ultimately made its way to the United States as well as altered the emphasis of the country’s economy and the method it produces items.
For greater than 10 years prior to the outbreak of the revolution in 1775, conflict had actually been building between colonists and the British authorities. These tensions emerged from growing tensions in between locals of Great Britain’s 13 North American colonies and also the colonial government (which represented the British crown). Attempts by the British government to raise profits by collecting tax from the colonies (notably the Stamp Act of 1765, the Townshend Tariffs of 1767 and also the Tea Act of 1773) met with negative protest amongst several colonists, that disliked their absence of representation in Parliament as well as required the very same legal rights as various other British citizens. Colonial resistance brought about physical violence in 1770, when British soldiers opened fire on a crowd of colonists, eliminating five people in exactly what was known as the Boston Massacre. After December 1773, when a band of Bostonians impersonated Mohawk Indians boarded British ships and dumped 342 chests of tea right into Boston Harbor, an annoyed Parliament passed a series of steps (known as the Intolerable, or Coercive Acts) created to reassert royal authority in Massachusetts.
George Washington was made its commander-in-chief. Congress hoped they could force the British to work out yet George III rejected to compromise. Rather, in August 1775 he stated that all the American colonies were in a state of disobedience.
By the autumn of 1781, the American forces had actually begun to compel the enemy to withdraw to Virginia’s Yorktown peninsula, near where the York River empties right into Chesapeake Bay. Stating health problems, the British general sent his deputy, Charles O’Hara, to give up; after O’Hara came close to Rochambeau to surrender his sword (the Frenchman deferred to Washington), Washington offered the nod to his very own replacement, Benjamin Lincoln, who approved it. After French assistance assisted the Continental Army require the British surrender at Yorktown, Virginia, in 1781, the Americans had actually successfully won their independence, though the battle would not officially finish til 1783.
The movement for American independence properly won at Yorktown, modern observers did not see that as the definitive success. British forces remained stationed around Charleston, and the effective major military still stayed in New York. The British exit of their soldiers from Charleston as well as Savannah in late 1782 lastly pointed to the end of the dispute. British and also American mediators in Paris authorized preliminary peace terms in Paris late that November, and on September 3, 1783, Great Britain officially identified the independence of the United States in the Treaty of Paris. At the same time, Britain signed different peace treaties with France as well as Spain (which had actually gone into the dispute in 1779), bringing the American Revolution to a close after eight lengthy years.
Exactly how the American Flag became
The American flag was made to stand for the brand-new union of the thirteen initial states: it would have thirteen stripes, alternating red and also white, as well as thirteen stars, white on a blue area. One of the very first flags had actually the stars laid out in a circle, based on the concept that colonies were equal. The thirteen stripes, resting side-by-side, represented the struggle for freedom; red represented valiance, white signified purity and blue represented commitment.
In 1818, after a couple of design changes, the United States Congress chose to retain the flag’s initial thirteen stripes as well as add new stars to reflect each brand-new state that entered the union.
While there is no question that the actual Betsy Ross was worthy of interest in her own right, it is the tale of Betsy stitching the first stars and stripes that has made her an extraordinary historical figure. The Betsy Ross tale was given spotlight in 1870 by her grand son, William Canby, in a speech he made to the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. Canby and various other members of Betsy’s family members authorized sworn affidavits specifying that they listened to the tale of the making of the first flag from Betsy’s own mouth.
According to the oral history, in 1776, three men – George Washington, Robert Morris, and George Ross, visited Betsy Ross in her upholstery store. On a paper Washington revealed, was a drawing of a flag with thirteen red and white stripes and also thirteen six-pointed stars.
Washington asked if Betsy might make a flag from the layout. Betsy responded: “I do not know, however I will try.” This line was used in the vouched statements of many of Betsy’s relatives, recommending that it is a straight quote from Betsy. As the story goes, Betsy recommended changing the stars to 5 points instead of six. She showed them ways to do it with just one snip of her scissors. They all agreed to alter the layout to have stars with five points.
Some chroniclers believe that it was Francis Hopkisnon that offered birth to the idea of the Stars and Stripes. Francis Hopkinson was a popular patriot, an attorney, a Congressman from New Jersey, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, poet, artist, and also distinguished civil servant.
He was designated to the Continental Navy Board on November 6,1776. It was while working on the Continental Navy Board that he transformed his attention to making the flag of the United States. Using stars in that design is believed to have been the outcome of an experience in the war straightly related to his propriety.
A publication in Hopkinson’s collection at his house in Bordentown was taken by a Hessian soldier in December 1776, a dark year of the battle. The soldier, one I. Ewald, composed on the inside cover that he had actually seen the writer near Philadelphia and also that he, Ewald, had taken the book from a fine country seat near Philadelphia. The soldier had actually created over and below Hopkinson’s bookplate, which had 3 six pointed stars as well as his family slogan, “Semper Paratus”, or “Always Ready”.
In a letter to the Board of Admiralty in 1780 Hopkinson insisted that he had made “the flag of the United States of America” in addition to several ornaments, devices, and checks showing up on bills of exchange, ship documents, the seals of the boards of Admiralty and also Treasury, and also the Great Seal of the United States. Hopkinson had received nothing for this job, and currently he sent a bill as well as asked “whether a Quarter Cask of the public wine” would not be a practical and proper incentive for his labors.
Even so, nobody can be so certain who developed the American flag. The American flag is the sacred emblem of the nation. As you see the flag silhouetted against the relaxed skies of the country, you are reminded that the American flag stands for exactly what you are – no more, no much less.
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As taken from the Star Spangled Banner:
O say can you see, by the dawn’s early light,
What so proudly we hailed at the twilight’s last gleaming,
Whose broad stripes and bright stars through the perilous fight,
O’er the ramparts we watched, were so gallantly streaming?
And the rockets’ red glare, the bombs bursting in air,
Gave proof through the night that our flag was still there;
O say does that star-spangled banner yet wave
O’er the land of the free and the home of the brave?
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