The background of the United States is vast and intricate, but can be broken down into moments and time periods that split, combined, and changed the United States into the country it is today. The American flag didn’t appear like it does now. Aside from that, it underwent a great deal of adjustments and also alterations.
The American Revolutionary War
Enter the American Revolution. Sometimes referred to as the American War of Independence, or the Revolutionary War, it was a dispute which lasted from 1775-1783 and also allowed the initial 13 colonies to continue to be independent from Great Britain. Beginning in Great Britain in the late 1790s, the Industrial Revolution eventually made its way to the United States and also altered the emphasis of the nation’s economy as well as the means it manufactures items.
For more than 10 years prior to the outbreak of the revolution in 1775, tensions had been developing in between colonists as well as the British authorities. These stress occurred from expanding tensions between citizens of Great Britain’s 13 North American colonies as well as the colonial government (which stood for the British crown). Efforts by the British government to elevate revenue by taxing the colonies (especially the Stamp Act of 1765, the Townshend Tariffs of 1767 and the Tea Act of 1773) met with heated demonstration among lots of colonists, that disliked their lack of representation in Parliament and also demanded the very same legal rights as various other British subjects. Colonial resistance brought about violence in 1770, when British soldiers opened fire on a crowd of colonists, killing five men in what was called the Boston Massacre. After December 1773, when a band of Bostonians dressed as Mohawk Indians boarded British ships and unloaded 342 containers of tea right into Boston Harbor, an annoyed Parliament passed a series of steps (known as the Intolerable, or Coercive Acts) developed to reassert royal authority in Massachusetts.
George Washington was made its leader. Congress wished they could force the British to negotiate however George III rejected to compromise. Instead, in August 1775 he stated that all the American colonies were in a state of rebellion.
By June 1776, with the Revolutionary War in full swing, an expanding majority of the colonists had actually pertained to prefer independence from Britain. That same year Richard Henry Lee of the Virginia Assembly presented Congress with resolutions stating the freedom of the colonies, asking for a confederation and also revealed the have to find foreign allies for a battle versus Britain. On July 4th, the Continental Congress elected to embrace the Declaration of Independence, composed by a five-man board including Franklin as well as John Adams however composed mainly by Jefferson. By the autumn of 1781, the American army had actually begun to compel the opponent to withdraw to Virginia’s Yorktown peninsula, near where the York River clears right into Chesapeake Bay. Backed up by a French military commanded by General Jean Baptiste de Rochambeau, Washington moved against Yorktown with an overall of around 14,000 soldiers, while a fleet of 36 French battleships offshore prevented British reinforcement or evacuation. Caught as well as subdued, the enemy was required to surrender their whole army. Stating ailments, the British general sent his replacement, Charles O’Hara, to give up; after O’Hara came close to Rochambeau to surrender his sword (the Frenchman deferred to Washington), Washington gave the nod to his own deputy, Benjamin Lincoln, that approved it. After French support helped the Continental Army force the British abandonment at Yorktown, Virginia, in 1781, the Americans had actually effectively won their independence, though combatting would not formally end til 1783.
The motion for American independence effectively triumphed at Yorktown, contemporary historians did not see that as the decisive victory. British and also American arbitrators in Paris authorized preliminary peace terms in Paris late that November, and also on September 3, 1783, Great Britain formally recognized the independence of the United States in the Treaty of Paris.
Exactly how the American Flag came to be
The American flag was designed to stand for the new union of the thirteen original states: it would have thirteen stripes, alternating red and white, as well as thirteen stars, white on a blue area. One of the first flags had the stars laid out in a circle, based upon the concept that colonies were equal. The thirteen stripes, resting side-by-side, represented the battle for independence; red stood for valor, white signified purity and also blue stood for loyalty.
In 1818, after a couple of layout changes, the United States Congress chose to preserve the flag’s initial thirteen stripes and also include brand-new stars to reflect each brand-new state that joined the union.
While there is no question that the real Betsy Ross was worthy of interest in her own right, it is the tale of Betsy stitching the very first stars and stripes that has made her a memorable historical figure. The Betsy Ross story was brought to public attention in 1870 by her grand son, William Canby, in a speech he made to the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. Canby and various other members of Betsy’s family signed sworn testimonies mentioning that they listened to the tale of the production of the very first flag from Betsy’s very own mouth.
According to the dental background, in 1776, three men – George Washington, Robert Morris, as well as George Ross, went to Betsy Ross in her upholstery store. On a paper Washington revealed, was a drawing of a flag with thirteen red as well as white stripes as well as thirteen 6-pointed stars.
Washington asked if Betsy can make a flag from the layout. Betsy reacted: “I don’t know, yet I will certainly attempt.” This line was used in the sworn statements of several of Betsy’s family members, recommending that it is a straight quote from Betsy. As the story goes, Betsy suggested altering the stars to five points instead than 6.
Nonetheless, some historians believe that it was Francis Hopkisnon that gave birth to the idea of the Stars and Stripes. Francis Hopkinson was a preferred patriot, a lawyer, a Congressman from New Jersey, an endorser of the Declaration of Independence, poet, musician, as well as distinguished civil servant.
He was designated to the Continental Navy Board on November 6,1776. It was while serving on the Continental Navy Board that he turned his attention to designing the flag of the United States. Making use of stars in that design is believed to have actually been the result of an experience in the war directly pertaining to his propriety.
A book in Hopkinson’s collection at his home in Bordentown was taken by a Hessian soldier in December 1776, a dark year of the battle. The book, Discourses on Public Occasions in America (London, 1762) by William Smith, D.D., had been a gift to him by the author. The soldier, an I. Ewald, composed on the within cover that he had actually seen the author near Philadelphia which he, Ewald, had actually taken the book from a great country seat near Philadelphia. The book was subsequently given to someone in Philadelphia who returned it to Hopkinson. The soldier had created over as well as listed below Hopkinson’s bookplate, which had 3 6 pointed stars and also his family adage, “Semper Paratus”, or “Always Ready”. The safe return of the book might well have actually symbolized to Hopkinson the resurgence of the Americans’ hope.
In a letter to the Board of Admiralty in 1780 Hopkinson insisted that he had actually made “the flag of the United States of America” as well as several ornaments, devices, and checks showing up on bills of exchange, ship papers, the seals of the boards of Admiralty as well as Treasury, as well as the Great Seal of the United States. Hopkinson had gotten absolutely nothing for this work, and also now he submitted a bill and also asked “whether a Quarter Cask of the public wine” would certainly not be a reasonable and proper reward for his labors.
Also so, nobody could be so sure who developed the American flag. The American flag is the spiritual symbol of the country. As you see the flag silhouetted against the tranquil skies of the country, you are reminded that the American flag stands for exactly what you are – no more, no less.
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As taken from the Star Spangled Banner:
O say can you see, by the dawn’s early light,
What so proudly we hailed at the twilight’s last gleaming,
Whose broad stripes and bright stars through the perilous fight,
O’er the ramparts we watched, were so gallantly streaming?
And the rockets’ red glare, the bombs bursting in air,
Gave proof through the night that our flag was still there;
O say does that star-spangled banner yet wave
O’er the land of the free and the home of the brave?
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