The history of the United States is large and complicated, yet can be broken down into moments and also time periods that divided, linked, and also transformed the United States into the nation it is today. The American flag did not resemble like it does now. Besides that, it underwent a lot of modifications and modifications.
The American Revolutionary War
Enter the American Revolution. Occasionally described as the American War of Independence, or the Revolutionary War, it was a dispute which lasted from 1775-1783 as well as permitted the original 13 colonies to stay independent from Great Britain. Starting in Great Britain in the late 1790s, the Industrial Revolution at some point made its path to the United States and also changed the emphasis of the country’s economic situation as well as the way it produces products.
For greater than 10 years prior to the episode of the revolution in 1775, tensions had been building between colonists and the British authorities. These tensions arose from growing tensions between citizens of Great Britain’s 13 North American colonies and also the colonial government (which represented the British crown). Attempts by the British government to increase profits by taxing the colonies (especially the Stamp Act of 1765, the Townshend Tariffs of 1767 and also the Tea Act of 1773) met negative protest among many colonists, that resented their absence of depiction in Parliament and required the same legal rights as various other British citizens. Colonial resistance resulted in physical violence in 1770, when British soldiers opened fire on a crowd of colonists, eliminating 5 men in exactly what was referred to as the Boston Massacre. After December 1773, when a band of Bostonians dressed as Mohawk Indians boarded British ships then discarded 342 containers of tea right into Boston Harbor, an annoyed Parliament passed a collection of measures (called the Intolerable, or Coercive Acts) created to reassert royal authority in Massachusetts.
The Continental Congress met in May 1775 and also accepted to build an army. George Washington was made its commander in chief. Congress wished they can compel the British to work out however George III chose not to negotiate. Instead, in August 1775 he proclaimed that the American colonies were in a state of rebellion. Rule by royal governor broke down and the individuals required government without royal interference. In May 1776 Congress determined that imperial government needs to stop as well as government ought to be ‘under the authority of individuals’. Consequently the colonies drew up state constitutions to replace their charters.
By the fall of 1781, the American army had actually begun to compel the opponent to withdraw to Virginia’s Yorktown peninsula, near where the York River clears into Chesapeake Bay. Claiming disease, the British general sent his replacement, Charles O’Hara, to surrender; after O’Hara approached Rochambeau to surrender his sword (the Frenchman deferred to Washington), Washington offered the nod to his own replacement, Benjamin Lincoln, who approved it. After French support assisted the Continental Army require the British surrender at Yorktown, Virginia, in 1781, the Americans had actually properly won their independence, though the war would certainly not officially finish up until 1783.
The movement for American independence efficiently triumphed at Yorktown, contemporary historians did not see that as the crucial triumph. British and American mediators in Paris authorized initial peace terms in Paris late that November, as well as on September 3, 1783, Great Britain officially recognized the freedom of the United States in the Treaty of Paris.
Exactly how the American Flag came to be
The American flag was developed to represent the brand-new union of the thirteen initial states: it would certainly have thirteen stripes, alternating red and also white, and also thirteen stars, white on a blue field. Among the first flags had the stars laid out in a circle, based on the concept that all colonies were equal. The thirteen stripes, laid out side by side, represented the battle for independence; red meant valiance, white signified purity and also blue represented loyalty.
In 1818, after a few design changes, the United States Congress decided to keep the flag’s initial thirteen stripes and include brand-new stars to reflect each brand-new state that joined the union.
While there is no doubt that the genuine Betsy Ross was worthy of interest in her very own right, it is the tale of Betsy stitching the initial stars and stripes that has actually made her a memorable historical number. The Betsy Ross tale was offered public attention in 1870 by her grandson, William Canby, in a speech he made to the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. Canby as well as various other members of Betsy’s family authorized sworn affidavits specifying that they listened to the story of the making of the very first flag from Betsy’s very own mouth.
According to the dental history, in 1776, three men – George Washington, Robert Morris, as well as George Ross, went to Betsy Ross in her upholstery store. On a paper Washington showed, was a sketch of a flag with thirteen red as well as white stripes and also thirteen 6-pointed stars.
Washington asked if Betsy can make a flag from the style. Betsy responded: “I do not know, but I will attempt.” This line was made use of in the sworn statements of much of Betsy’s relatives, recommending that it is a direct quote from Betsy. As the story goes, Betsy suggested altering the stars to 5 points instead of 6. She demonstrated to them how to do it with just one snip of her scissors. They all agreed to transform the layout to have stars with five points.
Some people think that it was Francis Hopkisnon who offered birth to the concept of the Stars and Stripes. Francis Hopkinson was a prominent patriot, an attorney, a Congressman from New Jersey, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, poet, musician, and also distinguished civil servant.
He was assigned to the Continental Navy Board on November 6,1776. It was while working on the Continental Navy Board that he transformed his focus on making the flag of the United States. Making use of stars because design is believed to have been the outcome of an experience in the war straightly pertaining to his propriety.
A book in Hopkinson’s collection at his home in Bordentown was taken by a Hessian soldier in December 1776, a dark year of the battle. The book, Discourses on Public Occasions in America (London, 1762) by William Smith, D.D., had been a gift to him by the author. The soldier, an I. Ewald, wrote on the within cover that he had seen the writer near Philadelphia which he, Ewald, had actually taken the book from a great nation seat near Philadelphia. The book was consequently given to somebody in Philadelphia who returned it to Hopkinson. The soldier had actually written over as well as listed below Hopkinson’s bookplate, which had three 6 pointed stars and also his household slogan, “Semper Paratus”, or “Always Ready”. The secure return of the book could well have actually symbolized to Hopkinson the resurgence of the Americans’ hope.
In a letter to the Board of Admiralty in 1780 Hopkinson asserted that he had actually made “the flag of the United States of America” as well as a number of ornaments, devices, and checks showing up on bills of exchange, ship documents, the seals of the boards of Admiralty and Treasury, and also the Great Seal of the United States. Hopkinson had actually received nothing for this job, and currently he sent a bill as well as asked “whether a Quarter Cask of the public wine” would not be a reasonable as well as correct reward for his labors.
However, nobody can be so certain that created the American flag. The American flag is the sacred emblem of the country. It symbolizes the citizens’ birthright, their heritage of liberty purchased with blood and grief. The title deed of freedom, which is the nation’s to delight in and hold in trust for posterity. Eternal watchfulness is the price of freedom. As you see the flag silhouetted in front of the peaceful skies of the nation, you are reminded that the American flag represents just what you are – no more, no much less.
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As taken from the Star Spangled Banner:
O say can you see, by the dawn’s early light,
What so proudly we hailed at the twilight’s last gleaming,
Whose broad stripes and bright stars through the perilous fight,
O’er the ramparts we watched, were so gallantly streaming?
And the rockets’ red glare, the bombs bursting in air,
Gave proof through the night that our flag was still there;
O say does that star-spangled banner yet wave
O’er the land of the free and the home of the brave?
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