The history of the United States is vast as well as complex, yet can be broken down into moments as well as time periods that divided, merged, as well as changed the United States right into the nation it is now. The American flag didn’t look like it does now. Aside from that, it undertook a lot of changes and also modifications.
The American Revolutionary War
Enter the American Revolution. Often referred to as the American War of Independence, or the Revolutionary War, it was a war which lasted from 1775-1783 and also enabled the original 13 colonies to stay independent from Great Britain. Starting in Great Britain in the late 1790s, the Industrial Revolution ultimately made its way to the United States and also altered the focus of the nation’s economy as well as the way it manufactures products.
For more than 10 years prior to the episode of the revolution in 1775, conflict had actually been building in between colonists as well as the British authorities. These tensions occurred from growing tensions in between residents of Great Britain’s 13 North American colonies as well as the colonial government (which stood for the British crown). Efforts by the British government to raise income by collecting tax from the colonies (especially the Stamp Act of 1765, the Townshend Tariffs of 1767 and also the Tea Act of 1773) met violent objection among lots of colonists, who disliked their absence of depiction in Parliament and demanded the same legal rights as other British citizens. Colonial resistance caused violence in 1770, when British soldiers opened fire on a crowd of colonists, eliminating 5 men in just what was referred to as the Boston Massacre. After December 1773, when a band of Bostonians impersonated Mohawk Indians boarded British ships and discarded 342 chests of tea into Boston Harbor, an outraged Parliament passed a series of actions (known as the Intolerable, or Coercive Acts) developed to reassert imperial authority in Massachusetts.
George Washington was made its leader. Congress wished they could compel the British to negotiate yet George III rejected to compromise. Instead, in August 1775 he declared that all the American colonies were in a state of rebellion.
By the fall of 1781, the American army had actually begun to force the enemy to withdraw to Virginia’s Yorktown peninsula, near where the York River clears into Chesapeake Bay. Claiming illness, the British general sent his deputy, Charles O’Hara, to give up; after O’Hara came close to Rochambeau to surrender his sword (the Frenchman deferred to Washington), Washington gave the nod to his own deputy, Benjamin Lincoln, who approved it. After French help helped the Continental Army force the British surrender at Yorktown, Virginia, in 1781, the Americans had actually effectively won their freedom, though fighting would certainly not officially end til 1783.
The motion for American independence efficiently triumphed at Yorktown, contemporary historians did not see that as the definitive triumph. British armies continued to be based around Charleston, and the powerful main military still stayed in New York. The British exit of their troops from Charleston and also Savannah in late 1782 lastly indicated completion of the conflict. British and also American negotiators in Paris authorized initial peace terms in Paris late that November, as well as on September 3, 1783, Great Britain formally acknowledged the freedom of the United States in the Treaty of Paris. At the same time, Britain authorized separate peace treaties with France as well as Spain (which had actually entered the dispute in 1779), bringing the American Revolution to a close after 8 long years.
Exactly how the American Flag came to be
The American flag was developed to stand for the new union of the thirteen initial states: it would certainly have thirteen stripes, alternating red and white, and thirteen stars, white on a blue area. Among the first flags had the stars arranged in a circle, based upon the suggestion that all colonies were equal. The thirteen stripes, laid out side-by-side, represented the struggle for independence; red represented valiance, white signified purity and also blue stood for commitment.
In 1818, after a couple of layout modifications, the United States Congress chose to keep the flag’s original thirteen stripes and also include brand-new stars to show each new state that joined the union.
While there is no question that the genuine Betsy Ross was worthy of interest in her own right, it is the tale of Betsy stitching the first stars and stripes that has actually made her an extraordinary historic figure. The Betsy Ross story was offered public attention in 1870 by her grand son, William Canby, in a speech he made to the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. Canby and also other participants of Betsy’s household authorized vouched affidavits specifying that they heard the story of the production of the initial flag from Betsy’s very own mouth.
According to the dental background, in 1776, three men – George Washington, Robert Morris, as well as George Ross, saw Betsy Ross in her upholstery shop. On a paper Washington revealed, was a drawing of a flag with thirteen red as well as white stripes and also thirteen six-pointed stars.
Washington asked if Betsy can make a flag from the layout. Betsy reacted: “I do not know, yet I will attempt.” This line was utilized in the sworn statements of many of Betsy’s family members, recommending that it is a direct quote from Betsy. As the story goes, Betsy recommended changing the stars to five points as opposed to 6. She demonstrated to them ways to do it with simply one snip of her scissors. They all accepted to change the design to have stars with 5 points.
However, some historians think that it was Francis Hopkisnon who gave birth to the idea of the Stars and Stripes. Francis Hopkinson was a popular patriot, an attorney, a Congressman from New Jersey, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, poet, musician, and also identified civil servant.
He was designated to the Continental Navy Board on November 6,1776. It was while working on the Continental Navy Board that he turned his attention to developing the flag of the United States. The use of stars because style is thought to have actually been the outcome of an experience in the war straightly related to his propriety.
A publication in Hopkinson’s collection at his home in Bordentown was taken by a Hessian soldier in December 1776, a dark year of the war. The book, Discourses on Public Occasions in America (London, 1762) by William Smith, D.D., had been a gift to him by the author. The soldier, one I. Ewald, composed on the within cover that he had actually seen the author near Philadelphia which he, Ewald, had actually taken the book from a fine nation seat near Philadelphia. The book was ultimately offered to somebody in Philadelphia who returned it to Hopkinson. The soldier had composed over as well as below Hopkinson’s bookplate, which had three 6 pointed stars and his household adage, “Semper Paratus”, or “Always Ready”. The secure return of the book may well have actually represented to Hopkinson the revival of the Americans’ hope.
In a letter to the Board of Admiralty in 1780 Hopkinson insisted that he had actually designed “the flag of the United States of America” in addition to numerous ornaments, devices, and checks appearing on bills of exchange, ship documents, the seals of the boards of Admiralty as well as Treasury, and the Great Seal of the United States. Hopkinson had obtained absolutely nothing for this job, and also now he sent a bill as well as asked “whether a Quarter Cask of the public wine” would certainly not be a reasonable and also appropriate incentive for his labors.
Even so, no one can be so certain who created the American flag. The American flag is the sacred symbol of the nation. It symbolizes the citizens’ birthright, their heritage of freedom bought with blood and also sorrow. The title deed of liberty, which is the country’s to delight in as well as keep in trust for posterity. Timeless watchfulness is the price of freedom. As you see the flag silhouetted against the peaceful skies of the country, you are reminded that the American flag stands for exactly what you are – no more, no less.
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As quoted from the Star Spangled Banner:
O say can you see, by the dawn’s early light,
What so proudly we hailed at the twilight’s last gleaming,
Whose broad stripes and bright stars through the perilous fight,
O’er the ramparts we watched, were so gallantly streaming?
And the rockets’ red glare, the bombs bursting in air,
Gave proof through the night that our flag was still there;
O say does that star-spangled banner yet wave
O’er the land of the free and the home of the brave?
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