The history of the United States is vast and complicated, yet can be broken down right into moments and periods that split, merged, and transformed the United States into the nation it is now. The American flag did not appear like it does currently. Apart from that, it undertook a great deal of modifications and alterations.
The American Revolutionary War
Enter the American Revolution. Occasionally described as the American War of Independence, or the Revolutionary War, it was a dispute which lasted from 1775-1783 and allowed the original 13 colonies to stay independent from Great Britain. Beginning in Great Britain in the late 1790s, the Industrial Revolution at some point made its way to the United States as well as changed the focus of the nation’s economy and the way it produces products.
For greater than 10 years prior to the outbreak of the revolution in 1775, conflict had been developing between colonists and the British authorities. These stress occurred from expanding tensions in between citizens of Great Britain’s 13 North American colonies and the colonial government (which represented the British crown). Attempts by the British government to raise income by taxing the colonies (notably the Stamp Act of 1765, the Townshend Tariffs of 1767 and the Tea Act of 1773) met negative objection amongst lots of colonists, that resented their absence of representation in Parliament and also required the same civil liberties as various other British citizens. Colonial resistance led to violence in 1770, when British soldiers opened fire on a crowd of colonists, eliminating five men in just what was called the Boston Massacre. After December 1773, when a band of Bostonians dressed as Mohawk Indians boarded British ships and discarded 342 containers of tea into Boston Harbor, an outraged Parliament passed a series of procedures (called the Intolerable, or Coercive Acts) designed to reassert royal authority in Massachusetts.
George Washington was made its commander in chief. Congress hoped they could require the British to bargain but George III declined to negotiate. Rather, in August 1775 he proclaimed that all the American colonies were in a state of rebellion.
By June 1776, with the Revolutionary War in full swing, a growing bulk of the colonists had actually pertained to favor freedom from Britain. That very same year Richard Henry Lee of the Virginia Assembly offered Congress with resolutions stating the independence of the colonies, requiring a confederation as well as expressed the have to locate foreign allies for a battle versus Britain. On July 4th, the Continental Congress voted to adopt the Declaration of Independence, composed by a five-man committee consisting of Franklin as well as John Adams but written mainly by Jefferson. By the fall of 1781, the American forces had actually managed to require the enemy to withdraw to Virginia’s Yorktown peninsula, near where the York River clears into Chesapeake Bay. Backed up by a French military commanded by General Jean Baptiste de Rochambeau, Washington moved against Yorktown with an overall of around 14,000 soldiers, while a fleet of 36 French battleships offshore prevented British support or escape. Entrapped and also subdued, the enemy was forced to surrender their entire army. Claiming ailments, the British general sent his replacement, Charles O’Hara, to surrender; after O’Hara came close to Rochambeau to surrender his sword (the Frenchman deferred to Washington), Washington gave the nod to his very own replacement, Benjamin Lincoln, that accepted it. After French aid assisted the Continental Army force the British abandonment at Yorktown, Virginia, in 1781, the Americans had actually successfully won their self-reliance, though combatting would certainly not officially finish up until 1783.
The movement for American freedom successfully triumphed at Yorktown, contemporary observers did not see that as the crucial success. British and American negotiators in Paris authorized preliminary peace terms in Paris late that November, and on September 3, 1783, Great Britain formally acknowledged the freedom of the United States in the Treaty of Paris.
How the American Flag came to be
The American flag was made to represent the new union of the thirteen initial states: it would certainly have thirteen stripes, alternate red and also white, and thirteen stars, white on a blue area. One of the initial flags had actually the stars organized in a circle, based upon the suggestion that all colonies were equal. The thirteen stripes, resting side-by-side, stood for the struggle for independence; red stood for valiance, white signified pureness and blue represented loyalty.
In 1818, after a couple of design modifications, the United States Congress chose to maintain the flag’s initial thirteen stripes as well as add brand-new stars to show each new state that got in the union.
While there is no question that the genuine Betsy Ross deserved interest in her very own right, it is the tale of Betsy sewing the initial stars and stripes that has actually made her a remarkable historical figure. The Betsy Ross story was offered public attention in 1870 by her grand son, William Canby, in a speech he made to the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. Canby as well as other members of Betsy’s family authorized sworn affidavits specifying that they heard the tale of the production of the first flag from Betsy’s very own mouth.
According to the oral history, in 1776, 3 men – George Washington, Robert Morris, and George Ross, checked out Betsy Ross in her upholstery shop. On a piece of paper Washington showed, was a drawing of a flag with thirteen red and also white stripes and thirteen 6-pointed stars.
Washington asked if Betsy can make a flag from the design. Betsy reacted: “I don’t know, however I will certainly try.” This line was used in the vouched statements of numerous of Betsy’s family participants, recommending that it is a straight quote from Betsy. As the story goes, Betsy recommended transforming the stars to five points instead than six.
Some people believe that it was Francis Hopkisnon who offered birth to the suggestion of the Stars and Stripes. Francis Hopkinson was a popular patriot, a legal representative, a Congressman from New Jersey, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, poet, artist, and identified civil servant.
He was selected to the Continental Navy Board on November 6,1776. It was while working on the Continental Navy Board that he transformed his focus on making the flag of the United States. The use of stars in that layout is believed to have been the result of an experience in the war directly related to his propriety.
A publication in Hopkinson’s collection at his house in Bordentown was taken by a Hessian soldier in December 1776, a dark year of the war. The soldier, one I. Ewald, wrote on the within cover that he had actually seen the writer near Philadelphia and also that he, Ewald, had actually taken the publication from a fine nation seat near Philadelphia. The soldier had actually created over and listed below Hopkinson’s bookplate, which had 3 six pointed stars and his family slogan, “Semper Paratus”, or “Always Ready”.
In a letter to the Board of Admiralty in 1780 Hopkinson insisted that he had made “the flag of the United States of America” as well as a number of ornaments, devices, and checks appearing on bills of exchange, ship papers, the seals of the boards of Admiralty and Treasury, and the Great Seal of the United States. Hopkinson had actually received absolutely nothing for this job, and now he submitted a bill as well as asked “whether a Quarter Cask of the public wine” would not be a reasonable as well as appropriate incentive for his labors.
Even so, nobody can be so sure who produced the American flag. The American flag is the sacred symbol of the country. As you see the flag silhouetted in front of the peaceful skies of the nation, you are reminded that the American flag stands for what you are – no more, no less.
Top American Flags close to state of Alabama
As taken from the Star Spangled Banner:
O say can you see, by the dawn’s early light,
What so proudly we hailed at the twilight’s last gleaming,
Whose broad stripes and bright stars through the perilous fight,
O’er the ramparts we watched, were so gallantly streaming?
And the rockets’ red glare, the bombs bursting in air,
Gave proof through the night that our flag was still there;
O say does that star-spangled banner yet wave
O’er the land of the free and the home of the brave?
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