The history of the United States is vast and complicated, yet can be broken down into milestones and also time periods that divided, combined, and altered the United States into the nation it is now. The American flag really did not appear like it does now. Besides that, it underwent a lot of modifications as well as adjustments.
The American Revolutionary War
Enter the American Revolution. Sometimes described as the American War of Independence, or the Revolutionary War, it was a war which lasted from 1775-1783 as well as allowed the initial 13 colonies to stay independent from Great Britain. Starting in Great Britain in the late 1790s, the Industrial Revolution ultimately made its way to the United States and altered the emphasis of the nation’s economic situation and also the method it makes items.
These problems occurred from growing stress in between residents of Great Britain’s 13 North American colonies and the colonial government (which stood for the British crown). Attempts by the British federal government to raise earnings by collectin tax from the colonies (significantly the Stamp Act of 1765, the Townshend Tariffs of 1767 as well as the Tea Act of 1773) met with heated demonstration amongst lots of colonists, that resented their lack of representation in Parliament and also required the exact same rights as other British subjects.
George Washington was made its commander-in-chief. Congress hoped they can force the British to bargain yet George III refused to negotiate. Instead, in August 1775 he proclaimed that all the American colonies were in a state of rebellion.
By June 1776, with the Revolutionary War in full swing, a growing majority of the colonists had come to favor self-reliance from Britain. That same year Richard Henry Lee of the Virginia Assembly presented Congress with resolutions proclaiming the independence of the colonies, requiring a confederation and also expressed the should locate foreign allies for a war against Britain. On July 4th, the Continental Congress elected to embrace the Declaration of Independence, drafted by a five-man board consisting of Franklin and John Adams yet composed mostly by Jefferson. By the autumn of 1781, the American forces had managed to force the adversary to retreat to Virginia’s Yorktown peninsula, near where the York River clears right into Chesapeake Bay. Supported by a French military commanded by General Jean Baptiste de Rochambeau, Washington moved against Yorktown with a total of around 14,000 soldiers, while a fleet of 36 French battleships offshore prevented British reinforcement or escape. Caught as well as subdued, the adversary was required to surrender their entire military. Stating illness, the British general sent his replacement, Charles O’Hara, to give up; after O’Hara came close to Rochambeau to surrender his sword (the Frenchman deferred to Washington), Washington gave the nod to his own replacement, Benjamin Lincoln, who accepted it. After French support assisted the Continental Army force the British abandonment at Yorktown, Virginia, in 1781, the Americans had actually properly won their self-reliance, though fighting would not officially end til 1783.
Though the motion for American independence effectively won at Yorktown, modern observers did not see that as the crucial triumph yet. British armies continued to be based around Charleston, as well as the powerful major army still stayed in New York. The British removal of their soldiers from Charleston and also Savannah in late 1782 lastly pointed to completion of the conflict. British and also American arbitrators in Paris signed preliminary peace terms in Paris late that November, and also on September 3, 1783, Great Britain officially recognized the freedom of the United States in the Treaty of Paris. At the same time, Britain signed separate peace treaties with France and also Spain (which had actually gotten in the conflict in 1779), bringing the American Revolution to a close after eight long years.
How the American Flag happened
The American flag was made to represent the brand-new union of the thirteen original states: it would certainly have thirteen stripes, alternating red and also white, and thirteen stars, white on a blue field. One of the first flags had the stars organized in a circle, based on the idea that all colonies were equal. The thirteen stripes, resting side by side, stood for the struggle for independence; red represented valiance, white signified pureness and also blue stood for loyalty.
In 1818, after a few layout changes, the United States Congress made a decision to keep the flag’s initial thirteen stripes and also add brand-new stars to show each new state that joined the union.
While there is no question that the real Betsy Ross was worthy of interest in her own right, it is the tale of Betsy stitching the first stars and stripes that has actually made her an unforgettable historic number. The Betsy Ross tale was given public attention in 1870 by her grand son, William Canby, in a speech he made to the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. Canby and various other participants of Betsy’s family members authorized vouched testimonies stating that they heard the story of the production of the first flag from Betsy’s own mouth.
According to the narrative history, in 1776, three men – George Washington, Robert Morris, and George Ross, went to Betsy Ross in her upholstery shop. She escorted them to her parlor, where they could have a private meeting. Here, Washington pulled a folded up piece of paper from his inside jacket pocket. On it, was a drawing of a flag with thirteen red and white stripes and also thirteen six-pointed stars.
Washington asked if Betsy can make a flag from the design. Betsy responded: “I do not know, yet I will certainly try.” This line was made use of in the sworn statements of much of Betsy’s relatives, suggesting that it is a straight quote from Betsy. As the tale goes, Betsy recommended changing the stars to 5 points rather than 6. She showed them ways to do it with just one snip of her scissors. They all agreed to change the layout to have stars with five points.
Nonetheless, some historians believe that it was Francis Hopkisnon that gave birth to the suggestion of the Stars and Stripes. Francis Hopkinson was a prominent patriot, a legal representative, a Congressman from New Jersey, an endorser of the Declaration of Independence, poet, musician, as well as distinguished civil servant.
He was appointed to the Continental Navy Board on November 6,1776. It was while serving on the Continental Navy Board that he turned his attention to developing the flag of the United States. Making use of stars in that style is believed to have actually been the outcome of an experience in the war directly pertaining to his propriety.
A book in Hopkinson’s library at his home in Bordentown was taken by a Hessian soldier in December 1776, a dark year of the battle. The soldier, an I. Ewald, wrote on the within cover that he had seen the writer near Philadelphia as well as that he, Ewald, had actually taken the book from a fine nation seat near Philadelphia. The soldier had created above and listed below Hopkinson’s bookplate, which had three 6 pointed stars and also his household motto, “Semper Paratus”, or “Always Ready”.
In a letter to the Board of Admiralty in 1780 Hopkinson asserted that he had made “the flag of the United States of America” in addition to numerous ornaments, devices, and checks showing up on bills of exchange, ship papers, the seals of the boards of Admiralty and also Treasury, as well as the Great Seal of the United States. Hopkinson had received absolutely nothing for this job, as well as now he submitted a bill and asked “whether a Quarter Cask of the public wine” would certainly not be a practical as well as proper reward for his labors.
Also so, nobody can be so certain who created the American flag. The American flag is the spiritual emblem of the country. As you see the flag silhouetted against the relaxed skies of the nation, you are reminded that the American flag stands for just what you are – no more, no less.
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As quoted from the Star Spangled Banner:
O say can you see, by the dawn’s early light,
What so proudly we hailed at the twilight’s last gleaming,
Whose broad stripes and bright stars through the perilous fight,
O’er the ramparts we watched, were so gallantly streaming?
And the rockets’ red glare, the bombs bursting in air,
Gave proof through the night that our flag was still there;
O say does that star-spangled banner yet wave
O’er the land of the free and the home of the brave?
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