The history of the United States is substantial and complex, but can be broken down into moments as well as time periods that split, unified, and also transformed the United States right into the nation it is now. The American flag really did not appear like it does now. Aside from that, it underwent a great deal of changes as well as modifications.
The American Revolutionary War
Enter the American Revolution. Often referred to as the American War of Independence, or the Revolutionary War, it was a war which lasted from 1775-1783 and also allowed the original 13 colonies to remain independent from Great Britain. Starting in Great Britain in the late 1790s, the Industrial Revolution ultimately made its path to the United States and changed the emphasis of the country’s economy as well as the way it makes items.
These tensions developed from growing stress in between residents of Great Britain’s 13 North American colonies as well as the colonial government (which represented the British crown). Efforts by the British federal government to elevate earnings by collectin tax from the colonies (especially the Stamp Act of 1765, the Townshend Tariffs of 1767 and also the Tea Act of 1773) met with heated protest amongst numerous colonists, that disliked their absence of depiction in Parliament and also demanded the very same rights as other British citizens.
George Washington was made its commander in chief. Congress hoped they can force the British to work out but George III rejected to negotiate. Rather, in August 1775 he declared that all the American colonies were in a state of disobedience.
By the fall of 1781, the American army had actually managed to compel the opponent to retreat to Virginia’s Yorktown peninsula, near where the York River empties into Chesapeake Bay. Claiming disease, the British general sent his deputy, Charles O’Hara, to give up; after O’Hara approached Rochambeau to surrender his sword (the Frenchman deferred to Washington), Washington provided the nod to his very own deputy, Benjamin Lincoln, who accepted it. After French support aided the Continental Army force the British abandonment at Yorktown, Virginia, in 1781, the Americans had successfully won their freedom, though the war would not officially end until 1783.
The motion for American independence successfully triumphed at Yorktown, contemporary historians did not see that as the definitive triumph. British and American mediators in Paris signed initial peace terms in Paris late that November, and on September 3, 1783, Great Britain officially recognized the independence of the United States in the Treaty of Paris.
Exactly how the American Flag came to be
The American flag was created to represent the new union of the thirteen initial states: it would have thirteen stripes, alternating red and white, as well as thirteen stars, white on a blue field. Among the initial flags had the stars set up in a circle, based upon the idea that all colonies were equal. The thirteen stripes, laid out side-by-side, stood for the struggle for freedom; red meant valiance, white signified pureness and blue stood for commitment.
In 1818, after a few layout modifications, the United States Congress chose to maintain the flag’s initial thirteen stripes and include brand-new stars to show each new state that entered the union.
While there is no question that the actual Betsy Ross deserved interest in her very own right, it is the tale of Betsy sewing the initial stars and stripes that has made her an extraordinary historical figure. The Betsy Ross story was given public attention in 1870 by her grandson, William Canby, in a speech he made to the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. Canby and also other members of Betsy’s household authorized vouched testimonies mentioning that they listened to the tale of the making of the initial flag from Betsy’s own mouth.
According to the oral history, in 1776, 3 men – George Washington, Robert Morris, as well as George Ross, saw Betsy Ross in her upholstery store. She escorted them to her parlor, where they could have a private meeting. Right here, Washington took a folded up piece of paper from his inside jacket pocket. On it, was a drawing of a flag with thirteen red and also white stripes as well as thirteen 6-pointed stars.
Washington asked if Betsy can make a flag from the style. Betsy responded: “I don’t know, however I will try.” This line was used in the vouched declarations of much of Betsy’s members of the family, recommending that it is a straight quote from Betsy. As the story goes, Betsy recommended changing the stars to 5 points as opposed to 6. She demonstrated to them the best ways to do it with just one snip of her scissors. They all accepted to change the style to have stars with five points.
However, some chroniclers believe that it was Francis Hopkisnon who brought to life the idea of the Stars and Stripes. Francis Hopkinson was a popular patriot, a legal representative, a Congressman from New Jersey, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, poet, artist, and also identified civil servant.
He was appointed to the Continental Navy Board on November 6,1776. It was while working on the Continental Navy Board that he turned his focus on designing the flag of the United States. Making use of stars because style is believed to have actually been the outcome of an experience in the war straightly pertaining to his propriety.
A book in Hopkinson’s library at his home in Bordentown was taken by a Hessian soldier in December 1776, a dark year of the war. The book, Discourses on Public Occasions in America (London, 1762) by William Smith, D.D., had actually been a present to him by the author. The soldier, an I. Ewald, created on the within cover that he had actually seen the writer near Philadelphia and that he, Ewald, had actually taken the book from a great nation seat near Philadelphia. The book was ultimately offered to someone in Philadelphia who returned it to Hopkinson. The soldier had written above and below Hopkinson’s bookplate, which had 3 6 pointed stars and his household adage, “Semper Paratus”, or “Always Ready”. The safe return of the book may well have represented to Hopkinson the rebirth of the Americans’ wish.
In a letter to the Board of Admiralty in 1780 Hopkinson insisted that he had designed “the flag of the United States of America” as well as a number of ornaments, devices, and checks appearing on bills of exchange, ship papers, the seals of the boards of Admiralty and also Treasury, and also the Great Seal of the United States. Hopkinson had gotten absolutely nothing for this work, and now he sent a bill and asked “whether a Quarter Cask of the public wine” would certainly not be a practical and also appropriate reward for his labors.
Even so, nobody can be so sure that developed the American flag. The American flag is the spiritual emblem of the nation. As you see the flag silhouetted against the peaceful skies of the nation, you are reminded that the American flag stands for exactly what you are – no more, no much less.
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As quoted from the Star Spangled Banner:
O say can you see, by the dawn’s early light,
What so proudly we hailed at the twilight’s last gleaming,
Whose broad stripes and bright stars through the perilous fight,
O’er the ramparts we watched, were so gallantly streaming?
And the rockets’ red glare, the bombs bursting in air,
Gave proof through the night that our flag was still there;
O say does that star-spangled banner yet wave
O’er the land of the free and the home of the brave?
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