The history of the United States is vast and complex, yet can be broken down into moments and time periods that separated, linked, as well as altered the United States right into the nation it is now. The American flag did not look like it does currently. Besides that, it went through a great deal of changes and also adjustments.
The American Revolutionary War
Enter the American Revolution. In some cases described as the American War of Independence, or the Revolutionary War, it was a war which lasted from 1775-1783 and enabled the initial 13 colonies to stay independent from Great Britain. Starting in Great Britain in the late 1790s, the Industrial Revolution eventually made its path to the United States as well as altered the emphasis of the nation’s economy as well as the way it produces products.
These conflicts arose from growing tensions in between locals of Great Britain’s 13 North American colonies and also the colonial government (which represented the British crown). Attempts by the British government to elevate income by taxing the colonies (significantly the Stamp Act of 1765, the Townshend Tariffs of 1767 and also the Tea Act of 1773) met with negative objection amongst several colonists, who disliked their lack of depiction in Parliament as well as required the very same civil liberties as other British subjects.
The Continental Congress met in May 1775 and also agreed to raise an army. George Washington was made its leader. Congress wished they might compel the British to work out but George III refused to compromise. Instead, in August 1775 he proclaimed that the American colonies were in a state of rebellion. Rule by royal governor broke down as well as the individuals demanded government without imperial intervention. In May 1776 Congress chose that imperial government must stop and government must be ‘for the people’. Ultimately the colonies drew up state constitutions to replace their charters.
By June 1776, with the Revolutionary War in progress, a growing majority of the colonists had actually come to favor independence from Britain. That very same year Richard Henry Lee of the Virginia Assembly presented Congress with resolutions proclaiming the freedom of the colonies, calling for a confederation as well as revealed the have to find foreign allies for a war versus Britain. On July 4th, the Continental Congress elected to embrace the Declaration of Independence, prepared by a five-man board including Franklin as well as John Adams but written mainly by Jefferson. By the fall of 1781, the American forces had managed to force the adversary to retreat to Virginia’s Yorktown peninsula, near where the York River clears into Chesapeake Bay. Supported by a French military commanded by General Jean Baptiste de Rochambeau, Washington moved against Yorktown with a total amount of around 14,000 soldiers, while a fleet of 36 French warships offshore stopped British reinforcement or escape. Entrapped and subdued, the adversary was compelled to surrender their whole army. Stating health problems, the British general sent his deputy, Charles O’Hara, to surrender; after O’Hara approached Rochambeau to surrender his sword (the Frenchman deferred to Washington), Washington gave the nod to his very own replacement, Benjamin Lincoln, that accepted it. After French aid assisted the Continental Army force the British abandonment at Yorktown, Virginia, in 1781, the Americans had actually effectively won their self-reliance, though the battle would not formally finish up until 1783.
The movement for American independence properly won at Yorktown, modern observers did not see that as the definitive triumph. British and also American mediators in Paris authorized initial peace terms in Paris late that November, and also on September 3, 1783, Great Britain officially identified the independence of the United States in the Treaty of Paris.
Just how the American Flag became
The American flag was designed to represent the new union of the thirteen initial states: it would certainly have thirteen stripes, alternating red and also white, and also thirteen stars, white on a blue field. One of the initial flags had actually the stars organized in a circle, based on the idea that all colonies were equal. The thirteen stripes, laid out side-by-side, stood for the struggle for independence; red represented valor, white signified pureness and blue stood for commitment.
In 1818, after a couple of layout adjustments, the United States Congress made a decision to maintain the flag’s initial thirteen stripes and add new stars to reflect each brand-new state that entered the union.
While there is no question that the actual Betsy Ross deserved interest in her own right, it is the tale of Betsy stitching the very first stars and stripes that has made her a memorable historical figure. The Betsy Ross story was offered public attention in 1870 by her grand son, William Canby, in a speech he made to the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. Canby as well as various other members of Betsy’s family signed sworn affidavits stating that they listened to the story of the production of the initial flag from Betsy’s own mouth.
According to the oral history, in 1776, three men – George Washington, Robert Morris, and also George Ross, visited Betsy Ross in her upholstery shop. She escorted them to her parlor, where they could have a private meeting. Right here, Washington pulled a folded up paper from his inside coat pocket. On it, was a drawing of a flag with thirteen red and also white stripes and also thirteen six-pointed stars.
Washington asked if Betsy might make a flag from the design. Betsy reacted: “I don’t know, yet I will try.” This line was made use of in the sworn declarations of numerous of Betsy’s household participants, suggesting that it is a direct quote from Betsy. As the story goes, Betsy recommended changing the stars to five points rather than six.
Some historians think that it was Francis Hopkisnon that gave birth to the suggestion of the Stars and Stripes. Francis Hopkinson was a prominent patriot, an attorney, a Congressman from New Jersey, an endorser of the Declaration of Independence, poet, artist, as well as identified civil servant.
He was assigned to the Continental Navy Board on November 6,1776. It was while serving on the Continental Navy Board that he turned his attention to creating the flag of the United States. The use of stars in that layout is thought to have actually been the result of an experience in the war directly pertaining to his propriety.
A publication in Hopkinson’s collection at his home in Bordentown was taken by a Hessian soldier in December 1776, a dark year of the battle. The book, Discourses on Public Occasions in America (London, 1762) by William Smith, D.D., had been a gift to him by the author. The soldier, one I. Ewald, created on the within cover that he had seen the author near Philadelphia and that he, Ewald, had actually taken the book from a fine country seat near Philadelphia. The book was ultimately given to a person in Philadelphia that returned it to Hopkinson. The soldier had composed over as well as below Hopkinson’s bookplate, which had 3 6 pointed stars and also his family adage, “Semper Paratus”, or “Always Ready”. The safe return of the book might well have actually signified to Hopkinson the revival of the Americans’ hope.
In a letter to the Board of Admiralty in 1780 Hopkinson asserted that he had actually designed “the flag of the United States of America” along with several ornaments, devices, and checks appearing on bills of exchange, ship papers, the seals of the boards of Admiralty as well as Treasury, and also the Great Seal of the United States. Hopkinson had actually obtained absolutely nothing for this job, as well as now he sent a bill as well as asked “whether a Quarter Cask of the public wine” would not be a reasonable and correct reward for his labors.
Also so, no one can be so certain who developed the American flag. The American flag is the sacred emblem of the country. As you see the flag silhouetted in front of the calm skies of the country, you are reminded that the American flag stands for what you are – no more, no less.
Top American Flags near state of Arizona
As taken from the Star Spangled Banner:
O say can you see, by the dawn’s early light,
What so proudly we hailed at the twilight’s last gleaming,
Whose broad stripes and bright stars through the perilous fight,
O’er the ramparts we watched, were so gallantly streaming?
And the rockets’ red glare, the bombs bursting in air,
Gave proof through the night that our flag was still there;
O say does that star-spangled banner yet wave
O’er the land of the free and the home of the brave?
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