The history of the United States is substantial and also intricate, however can be broken down right into milestones and periods that separated, linked, and altered the United States into the country it is today. The American flag really did not appear like it does currently. Other than that, it undertook a lot of changes and adjustments.
The American Revolutionary War
Enter the American Revolution. Occasionally described as the American War of Independence, or the Revolutionary War, it was a conflict which lasted from 1775-1783 as well as allowed the original 13 colonies to stay independent from Great Britain. Beginning in Great Britain in the late 1790s, the Industrial Revolution eventually made its way to the United States as well as altered the focus of the nation’s economic situation and also the method it manufactures products.
For greater than a decade before the break out of the revolution in 1775, tensions had actually been developing between colonists and the British authorities. These tensions arose from growing tensions between locals of Great Britain’s 13 North American colonies as well as the colonial government (which represented the British crown). Efforts by the British government to elevate revenue by taxing the colonies (especially the Stamp Act of 1765, the Townshend Tariffs of 1767 and the Tea Act of 1773) met negative objection amongst numerous colonists, that disliked their absence of depiction in Parliament and also demanded the very same civil liberties as various other British subjects. Colonial resistance brought about physical violence in 1770, when British soldiers opened fire on a mob of colonists, eliminating 5 people in exactly what was known as the Boston Massacre. After December 1773, when a band of Bostonians dressed as Mohawk Indians boarded British ships then discarded 342 chests of tea into Boston Harbor, a furious Parliament passed a series of procedures (known as the Intolerable, or Coercive Acts) made to reassert royal authority in Massachusetts.
George Washington was made its commander in chief. Congress wished they could compel the British to bargain but George III refused to negotiate. Instead, in August 1775 he declared that all the American colonies were in a state of disobedience.
By the autumn of 1781, the American forces had actually begun to require the enemy to retreat to Virginia’s Yorktown peninsula, near where the York River clears right into Chesapeake Bay. Claiming health problems, the British general sent his deputy, Charles O’Hara, to surrender; after O’Hara approached Rochambeau to surrender his sword (the Frenchman deferred to Washington), Washington offered the nod to his own deputy, Benjamin Lincoln, who accepted it. After French aid assisted the Continental Army require the British abandonment at Yorktown, Virginia, in 1781, the Americans had successfully won their freedom, though combatting would certainly not formally end up until 1783.
The movement for American independence effectively triumphed at Yorktown, contemporary observers did not see that as the decisive victory. British and American mediators in Paris authorized initial peace terms in Paris late that November, as well as on September 3, 1783, Great Britain officially acknowledged the freedom of the United States in the Treaty of Paris.
How the American Flag came to be
The American flag was designed to stand for the new union of the thirteen original states: it would have thirteen stripes, alternate red and also white, and also thirteen stars, white on a blue area. One of the first flags had the stars set up in a circle, based upon the suggestion that all colonies were equal. The thirteen stripes, resting side-by-side, stood for the struggle for freedom; red meant valor, white signified purity and also blue stood for commitment.
In 1818, after a few layout adjustments, the United States Congress made a decision to preserve the flag’s original thirteen stripes and also add brand-new stars to reflect each new state that entered the union.
While there is no doubt that the genuine Betsy Ross deserved interest in her very own right, it is the legend of Betsy sewing the first stars and stripes that has made her a memorable historic number. The Betsy Ross story was offered public attention in 1870 by her grandson, William Canby, in a speech he made to the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. Canby and also other participants of Betsy’s family members authorized sworn testimonies mentioning that they listened to the tale of the making of the initial flag from Betsy’s very own mouth.
According to the oral history, in 1776, 3 men – George Washington, Robert Morris, as well as George Ross, went to Betsy Ross in her upholstery shop. She accompanied them to her parlor, where they could have a private meeting. Here, Washington took a folded up piece of paper from his inside jacket pocket. On it, was a drawing of a flag with thirteen red and also white stripes as well as thirteen six-pointed stars.
Washington asked if Betsy could make a flag from the style. Betsy reacted: “I do not know, however I will certainly try.” This line was made use of in the vouched statements of numerous of Betsy’s family members, suggesting that it is a direct quote from Betsy. As the tale goes, Betsy suggested transforming the stars to 5 points rather than six.
Some chroniclers think that it was Francis Hopkisnon that gave birth to the idea of the Stars and Stripes. Francis Hopkinson was a preferred patriot, a lawyer, a Congressman from New Jersey, an endorser of the Declaration of Independence, poet, musician, and identified civil servant.
He was designated to the Continental Navy Board on November 6,1776. It was while working on the Continental Navy Board that he turned his focus on developing the flag of the United States. Making use of stars because design is thought to have been the outcome of an experience in the war straightly pertaining to his propriety.
A publication in Hopkinson’s library at his home in Bordentown was taken by a Hessian soldier in December 1776, a dark year of the battle. The book, Discourses on Public Occasions in America (London, 1762) by William Smith, D.D., had been a present to him by the author. The soldier, an I. Ewald, composed on the within cover that he had actually seen the writer near Philadelphia and that he, Ewald, had actually taken the book from a fine country seat near Philadelphia. The book was consequently provided to someone in Philadelphia who returned it to Hopkinson. The soldier had actually created over and listed below Hopkinson’s bookplate, which had three 6 pointed stars and his household adage, “Semper Paratus”, or “Always Ready”. The safe return of the book could well have actually signified to Hopkinson the rebirth of the Americans’ hope.
In a letter to the Board of Admiralty in 1780 Hopkinson asserted that he had actually designed “the flag of the United States of America” as well as a number of ornaments, devices, and checks showing up on bills of exchange, ship papers, the seals of the boards of Admiralty and also Treasury, as well as the Great Seal of the United States. Hopkinson had actually obtained nothing for this job, as well as currently he sent a bill and also asked “whether a Quarter Cask of the public wine” would not be a practical and appropriate incentive for his labors.
Also so, no one could be so sure that produced the American flag. The American flag is the spiritual symbol of the country. As you see the flag silhouetted against the relaxed skies of the nation, you are reminded that the American flag stands for what you are – no more, no much less.
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As quoted from the Star Spangled Banner:
O say can you see, by the dawn’s early light,
What so proudly we hailed at the twilight’s last gleaming,
Whose broad stripes and bright stars through the perilous fight,
O’er the ramparts we watched, were so gallantly streaming?
And the rockets’ red glare, the bombs bursting in air,
Gave proof through the night that our flag was still there;
O say does that star-spangled banner yet wave
O’er the land of the free and the home of the brave?
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