The history of the United States is vast as well as intricate, but can be broken down into milestones and time periods that divided, unified, as well as changed the United States right into the nation it is now. The American flag didn’t appear like it does currently. Apart from that, it underwent a lot of adjustments and also modifications.
The American Revolutionary War
Enter the American Revolution. Often described as the American War of Independence, or the Revolutionary War, it was a dispute which lasted from 1775-1783 and permitted the initial 13 colonies to stay independent from Great Britain. Starting in Great Britain in the late 1790s, the Industrial Revolution at some point made its way to the United States as well as altered the focus of the nation’s economy and the way it makes products.
For greater than a decade prior to the outbreak of the revolution in 1775, conflict had been developing between colonists and the British authorities. These stress developed from growing stress between residents of Great Britain’s 13 North American colonies as well as the colonial government (which represented the British crown). Efforts by the British government to elevate income by taxing the colonies (significantly the Stamp Act of 1765, the Townshend Tariffs of 1767 and also the Tea Act of 1773) met negative demonstration among several colonists, that resented their absence of representation in Parliament and also demanded the very same legal rights as various other British subjects. Colonial resistance resulted in physical violence in 1770, when British soldiers opened fire on a crowd of colonists, killing five men in just what was referred to as the Boston Massacre. After December 1773, when a band of Bostonians impersonated Mohawk Indians boarded British ships and dumped 342 chests of tea right into Boston Harbor, an annoyed Parliament passed a series of procedures (referred to as the Intolerable, or Coercive Acts) made to reassert imperial authority in Massachusetts.
The Continental Congress met in May 1775 as well as accepted to create an army. George Washington was made its commander in chief. Congress wished they might require the British to negotiate however George III refused to negotiate. Instead, in August 1775 he stated that all the American colonies were in a state of rebellion. Rule by royal governor broke down and the people required government without imperial intervention. In May 1776 Congress decided that imperial government must stop as well as government must be ‘under the authority of the people’. Ultimately the colonies prepared state constitutions to replace their charters.
By June 1776, with the Revolutionary War in full swing, an expanding majority of the colonists had actually come to favor self-reliance from Britain. That same year Richard Henry Lee of the Virginia Assembly provided Congress with resolutions proclaiming the independence of the colonies, requiring a confederation and shared the have to find international allies for a war against Britain. On July 4th, the Continental Congress elected to take on the Declaration of Independence, prepared by a five-man board consisting of Franklin as well as John Adams but created mainly by Jefferson. By the fall of 1781, the American forces had begun to force the adversary to withdraw to Virginia’s Yorktown peninsula, near where the York River empties right into Chesapeake Bay. Supported by a French army led by General Jean Baptiste de Rochambeau, Washington moved against Yorktown with a total of around 14,000 soldiers, while a fleet of 36 French warships offshore stopped British support or evacuation. Trapped as well as subdued, the adversary was forced to surrender their entire military. Claiming health problems, the British general sent his replacement, Charles O’Hara, to surrender; after O’Hara approached Rochambeau to surrender his sword (the Frenchman deferred to Washington), Washington gave the nod to his own replacement, Benjamin Lincoln, who accepted it. After French help helped the Continental Army compel the British surrender at Yorktown, Virginia, in 1781, the Americans had actually effectively won their freedom, though the battle would not officially end til 1783.
The motion for American freedom properly won at Yorktown, modern observers did not see that as the definitive success. British as well as American arbitrators in Paris signed preliminary peace terms in Paris late that November, as well as on September 3, 1783, Great Britain officially identified the independence of the United States in the Treaty of Paris.
Exactly how the American Flag became
The American flag was created to represent the brand-new union of the thirteen initial states: it would have thirteen stripes, alternate red and also white, and also thirteen stars, white on a blue field. One of the first flags had actually the stars organized in a circle, based upon the idea that colonies were equal. The thirteen stripes, laid out side by side, stood for the battle for independence; red stood for valor, white signified purity and also blue represented loyalty.
In 1818, after a couple of layout modifications, the United States Congress chose to keep the flag’s original thirteen stripes as well as include brand-new stars to reflect each new state that got in the union.
While there is no question that the real Betsy Ross was worthy of interest in her own right, it is the legend of Betsy stitching the initial stars and stripes that has made her an unforgettable historic number. The Betsy Ross story was offered spotlight in 1870 by her grandson, William Canby, in a speech he made to the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. Canby as well as various other participants of Betsy’s family members signed sworn affidavits stating that they heard the tale of the making of the very first flag from Betsy’s own mouth.
Based on the narrative history, in 1776, 3 men – George Washington, Robert Morris, and also George Ross, visited Betsy Ross in her furniture shop. She accompanied them to her parlor, where they could have a private meeting. Right here, Washington took a folded paper from his inside coat pocket. On it, was a drawing of a flag with thirteen red and also white stripes and thirteen 6-pointed stars.
Washington asked if Betsy might make a flag from the design. Betsy reacted: “I don’t know, yet I will certainly try.” This line was made use of in the vouched statements of many of Betsy’s members of the family, suggesting that it is a direct quote from Betsy. As the tale goes, Betsy suggested altering the stars to five points rather than 6. She demonstrated to them how to do it with just one snip of her scissors. They all agreed to transform the design to have stars with 5 points.
However, some chroniclers think that it was Francis Hopkisnon that gave birth to the concept of the Stars and Stripes. Francis Hopkinson was a prominent patriot, a legal representative, a Congressman from New Jersey, an endorser of the Declaration of Independence, poet, musician, and also identified civil servant.
He was appointed to the Continental Navy Board on November 6,1776. It was while serving on the Continental Navy Board that he transformed his attention to making the flag of the United States. Making use of stars in that style is thought to have been the result of an experience in the battle straightly pertaining to his propriety.
A book in Hopkinson’s collection at his home in Bordentown was taken by a Hessian soldier in December 1776, a dark year of the battle. The book, Discourses on Public Occasions in America (London, 1762) by William Smith, D.D., had actually been a present to him by the writer. The soldier, one I. Ewald, composed on the within cover that he had seen the author near Philadelphia which he, Ewald, had actually taken the book from a great country seat near Philadelphia. The book was consequently provided to someone in Philadelphia who returned it to Hopkinson. The soldier had actually composed over as well as below Hopkinson’s bookplate, which had 3 6 pointed stars as well as his family slogan, “Semper Paratus”, or “Always Ready”. The safe return of the book could well have actually signified to Hopkinson the rebirth of the Americans’ wish.
In a letter to the Board of Admiralty in 1780 Hopkinson insisted that he had actually designed “the flag of the United States of America” in addition to numerous ornaments, devices, and checks showing up on bills of exchange, ship documents, the seals of the boards of Admiralty and Treasury, as well as the Great Seal of the United States. Hopkinson had received absolutely nothing for this work, and currently he sent a bill and asked “whether a Quarter Cask of the public wine” would not be an affordable as well as correct incentive for his labors.
Even so, nobody can be so certain who developed the American flag. The American flag is the sacred symbol of the nation. It signifies the citizens’ birthright, their heritage of freedom bought with blood and also grief. The title deed of freedom, which is the nation’s to take pleasure in and hold in trust for posterity. Infinite vigilance is the cost of liberty. As you see the flag silhouetted in front of the calm skies of the country, you are reminded that the American flag means exactly what you are – no more, no less.
Best American Flags in state of Virginia
As taken from the Star Spangled Banner:
O say can you see, by the dawn’s early light,
What so proudly we hailed at the twilight’s last gleaming,
Whose broad stripes and bright stars through the perilous fight,
O’er the ramparts we watched, were so gallantly streaming?
And the rockets’ red glare, the bombs bursting in air,
Gave proof through the night that our flag was still there;
O say does that star-spangled banner yet wave
O’er the land of the free and the home of the brave?
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