The history of the United States is large and also complicated, but can be broken down into moments and also periods that divided, combined, as well as altered the United States into the country it is today. The American flag did not appear like it does currently. Other than that, it went through a great deal of changes and alterations.
The American Revolutionary War
Enter the American Revolution. Often described as the American War of Independence, or the Revolutionary War, it was a war which lasted from 1775-1783 and enabled the original 13 colonies to continue to be independent from Great Britain. Starting in Great Britain in the late 1790s, the Industrial Revolution ultimately made its path to the United States and changed the focus of the country’s economic climate as well as the method it makes products.
For greater than 10 years prior to the break out of the revolution in 1775, conflict had actually been building in between colonists and also the British authorities. These stress emerged from growing stress in between residents of Great Britain’s 13 North American colonies and the colonial government (which stood for the British crown). Attempts by the British government to elevate earnings by collecting tax from the colonies (notably the Stamp Act of 1765, the Townshend Tariffs of 1767 and also the Tea Act of 1773) met with violent protest amongst lots of colonists, who disliked their lack of representation in Parliament and required the very same rights as other British citizens. Colonial resistance brought about physical violence in 1770, when British soldiers opened fire on a mob of colonists, killing five men in just what was known as the Boston Massacre. After December 1773, when a band of Bostonians dressed as Mohawk Indians boarded British ships then discarded 342 containers of tea right into Boston Harbor, a furious Parliament passed a collection of procedures (referred to as the Intolerable, or Coercive Acts) developed to reassert royal authority in Massachusetts.
The Continental Congress met in May 1775 and also consented to raise an army. George Washington was made its commander in chief. Congress hoped they could require the British to work out but George III chose not to negotiate. Rather, in August 1775 he declared that all the American colonies remained in a state of rebellion. Rule by royal governor broke down and the people required government without royal interference. In May 1776 Congress chose that royal government must discontinue and also government should be ‘under the authority of the people’. Ultimately the colonies prepared state constitutions to replace their charters.
By the fall of 1781, the American forces had managed to compel the enemy to withdraw to Virginia’s Yorktown peninsula, near where the York River clears into Chesapeake Bay. Claiming disease, the British general sent his replacement, Charles O’Hara, to surrender; after O’Hara came close to Rochambeau to surrender his sword (the Frenchman deferred to Washington), Washington offered the nod to his very own deputy, Benjamin Lincoln, who accepted it. After French aid aided the Continental Army compel the British surrender at Yorktown, Virginia, in 1781, the Americans had actually efficiently won their independence, though combatting would not officially finish up until 1783.
The motion for American freedom efficiently won at Yorktown, contemporary observers did not see that as the crucial triumph. British and American arbitrators in Paris authorized preliminary peace terms in Paris late that November, and on September 3, 1783, Great Britain formally acknowledged the freedom of the United States in the Treaty of Paris.
How the American Flag came to be
The American flag was made to stand for the new union of the thirteen original states: it would certainly have thirteen stripes, alternating red and also white, as well as thirteen stars, white on a blue area. Among the initial flags had the stars laid out in a circle, based upon the suggestion that colonies were equal. The thirteen stripes, resting side-by-side, represented the battle for independence; red meant valor, white signified pureness and blue represented loyalty.
In 1818, after a few design changes, the United States Congress chose to keep the flag’s original thirteen stripes as well as add new stars to show each brand-new state that got in the union.
While there is no doubt that the actual Betsy Ross was worthy of interest in her very own right, it is the legend of Betsy sewing the first stars and stripes that has made her a memorable historic number. The Betsy Ross story was given spotlight in 1870 by her grandson, William Canby, in a speech he made to the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. Canby and various other participants of Betsy’s family members signed sworn testimonies mentioning that they listened to the tale of the making of the first flag from Betsy’s very own mouth.
According to the oral background, in 1776, three men – George Washington, Robert Morris, and George Ross, saw Betsy Ross in her furniture store. On a piece of paper Washington showed, was a drawing of a flag with thirteen red as well as white stripes and thirteen six-pointed stars.
Washington asked if Betsy could make a flag from the style. Betsy reacted: “I do not know, yet I will try.” This line was utilized in the vouched statements of most of Betsy’s members of the family, suggesting that it is a direct quote from Betsy. As the story goes, Betsy suggested changing the stars to 5 points as opposed to six. She demonstrated to them how to do it with simply one snip of her scissors. They all accepted to alter the style to have stars with five points.
Some people believe that it was Francis Hopkisnon that gave birth to the concept of the Stars and Stripes. Francis Hopkinson was a preferred patriot, an attorney, a Congressman from New Jersey, an endorser of the Declaration of Independence, poet, artist, and also distinguished civil servant.
He was appointed to the Continental Navy Board on November 6,1776. It was while serving on the Continental Navy Board that he transformed his focus on creating the flag of the United States. The use of stars in that layout is thought to have actually been the outcome of an experience in the war straightly related to his propriety.
A publication in Hopkinson’s collection at his home in Bordentown was taken by a Hessian soldier in December 1776, a dark year of the battle. The book, Discourses on Public Occasions in America (London, 1762) by William Smith, D.D., had actually been a present to him by the author. The soldier, one I. Ewald, created on the within cover that he had actually seen the writer near Philadelphia and that he, Ewald, had taken the book from a great nation seat near Philadelphia. The book was ultimately given to somebody in Philadelphia that returned it to Hopkinson. The soldier had written over as well as below Hopkinson’s bookplate, which had 3 6 pointed stars and his household adage, “Semper Paratus”, or “Always Ready”. The secure return of the book might well have actually symbolized to Hopkinson the resurgence of the Americans’ hope.
In a letter to the Board of Admiralty in 1780 Hopkinson asserted that he had actually designed “the flag of the United States of America” as well as a number of ornaments, devices, and checks appearing on bills of exchange, ship papers, the seals of the boards of Admiralty as well as Treasury, and also the Great Seal of the United States. Hopkinson had received absolutely nothing for this work, and currently he sent a bill and also asked “whether a Quarter Cask of the public wine” would not be an affordable as well as proper incentive for his labors.
Even so, no one can be so certain who produced the American flag. The American flag is the sacred emblem of the country. As you see the flag silhouetted in front of the serene skies of the nation, you are reminded that the American flag stands for what you are – no more, no much less.
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As taken from the Star Spangled Banner:
O say can you see, by the dawn’s early light,
What so proudly we hailed at the twilight’s last gleaming,
Whose broad stripes and bright stars through the perilous fight,
O’er the ramparts we watched, were so gallantly streaming?
And the rockets’ red glare, the bombs bursting in air,
Gave proof through the night that our flag was still there;
O say does that star-spangled banner yet wave
O’er the land of the free and the home of the brave?
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