The history of the United States is vast and also complex, yet can be broken down into milestones as well as periods that divided, combined, as well as altered the United States right into the country it is today. The American flag really did not look like it does now. Apart from that, it undertook a great deal of modifications and also alterations.
The American Revolutionary War
Enter the American Revolution. In some cases described as the American War of Independence, or the Revolutionary War, it was a dispute which lasted from 1775-1783 and also enabled the original 13 colonies to continue to be independent from Great Britain. Starting in Great Britain in the late 1790s, the Industrial Revolution at some point made its path to the United States as well as altered the emphasis of the country’s economic climate and the method it produces products.
For more than 10 years prior to the episode of the revolution in 1775, tensions had been developing in between colonists as well as the British authorities. These stress arose from growing stress in between residents of Great Britain’s 13 North American colonies as well as the colonial government (which stood for the British crown). Efforts by the British government to increase profits by collecting tax from the colonies (notably the Stamp Act of 1765, the Townshend Tariffs of 1767 and the Tea Act of 1773) met with negative protest among numerous colonists, who disliked their lack of depiction in Parliament and also required the exact same legal rights as various other British people. Colonial resistance resulted in physical violence in 1770, when British soldiers opened fire on a mob of colonists, eliminating five people in just what was referred to as the Boston Massacre. After December 1773, when a band of Bostonians impersonated Mohawk Indians boarded British ships and disposed 342 containers of tea into Boston Harbor, a furious Parliament passed a collection of steps (called the Intolerable, or Coercive Acts) created to reassert royal authority in Massachusetts.
George Washington was made its commander in chief. Congress hoped they can compel the British to work out but George III declined to compromise. Instead, in August 1775 he proclaimed that all the American colonies were in a state of disobedience.
By the autumn of 1781, the American army had actually managed to require the enemy to withdraw to Virginia’s Yorktown peninsula, near where the York River empties into Chesapeake Bay. Stating disease, the British general sent his deputy, Charles O’Hara, to surrender; after O’Hara came close to Rochambeau to surrender his sword (the Frenchman deferred to Washington), Washington provided the nod to his own replacement, Benjamin Lincoln, that accepted it. After French aid helped the Continental Army compel the British abandonment at Yorktown, Virginia, in 1781, the Americans had properly won their freedom, though the war would not officially end til 1783.
The motion for American independence properly won at Yorktown, modern observers did not see that as the definitive victory. British and American arbitrators in Paris authorized preliminary peace terms in Paris late that November, and also on September 3, 1783, Great Britain officially acknowledged the freedom of the United States in the Treaty of Paris.
How the American Flag happened
The American flag was created to stand for the brand-new union of the thirteen original states: it would certainly have thirteen stripes, alternate red as well as white, and also thirteen stars, white on a blue field. Among the initial flags had the stars set up in a circle, based upon the idea that colonies were equal. The thirteen stripes, laid out side by side, stood for the battle for freedom; red represented valor, white signified purity and blue represented loyalty.
In 1818, after a couple of style changes, the United States Congress made a decision to preserve the flag’s original thirteen stripes and include new stars to reflect each new state that entered the union.
While there is no doubt that the actual Betsy Ross deserved interest in her own right, it is the tale of Betsy stitching the first stars and stripes that has actually made her an extraordinary historic figure. The Betsy Ross story was brought to public attention in 1870 by her grandson, William Canby, in a speech he made to the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. Canby as well as various other participants of Betsy’s family authorized sworn testimonies specifying that they heard the tale of the production of the very first flag from Betsy’s own mouth.
According to the oral history, in 1776, 3 men – George Washington, Robert Morris, and George Ross, visited Betsy Ross in her upholstery store. On a piece of paper Washington showed, was a sketch of a flag with thirteen red and white stripes and thirteen six-pointed stars.
Washington asked if Betsy can make a flag from the design. Betsy reacted: “I do not know, however I will certainly try.” This line was utilized in the sworn declarations of much of Betsy’s family members, suggesting that it is a straight quote from Betsy. As the story goes, Betsy recommended altering the stars to 5 points rather than six. She showed them how you can do it with simply one snip of her scissors. They all accepted to alter the style to have stars with 5 points.
However, some chroniclers think that it was Francis Hopkisnon that gave birth to the concept of the Stars and Stripes. Francis Hopkinson was a prominent patriot, an attorney, a Congressman from New Jersey, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, poet, musician, and also identified civil servant.
He was designated to the Continental Navy Board on November 6,1776. It was while serving on the Continental Navy Board that he transformed his focus on creating the flag of the United States. Using stars in that design is believed to have actually been the result of an experience in the war straightly related to his propriety.
A book in Hopkinson’s collection at his home in Bordentown was taken by a Hessian soldier in December 1776, a dark year of the war. The soldier, an I. Ewald, composed on the inside cover that he had actually seen the writer near Philadelphia as well as that he, Ewald, had taken the book from a great nation seat near Philadelphia. The soldier had written over and also listed below Hopkinson’s bookplate, which had three six pointed stars and also his household adage, “Semper Paratus”, or “Always Ready”.
In a letter to the Board of Admiralty in 1780 Hopkinson asserted that he had designed “the flag of the United States of America” along with several ornaments, devices, and checks showing up on bills of exchange, ship documents, the seals of the boards of Admiralty as well as Treasury, and the Great Seal of the United States. Hopkinson had received nothing for this job, as well as currently he sent a bill and asked “whether a Quarter Cask of the public wine” would certainly not be a sensible and also appropriate reward for his labors.
Also so, no one could be so certain who produced the American flag. The American flag is the sacred symbol of the country. As you see the flag silhouetted against the tranquil skies of the nation, you are reminded that the American flag stands for just what you are – no more, no less.
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As quoted from the Star Spangled Banner:
O say can you see, by the dawn’s early light,
What so proudly we hailed at the twilight’s last gleaming,
Whose broad stripes and bright stars through the perilous fight,
O’er the ramparts we watched, were so gallantly streaming?
And the rockets’ red glare, the bombs bursting in air,
Gave proof through the night that our flag was still there;
O say does that star-spangled banner yet wave
O’er the land of the free and the home of the brave?
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