The history of the United States is vast as well as complicated, however can be broken down into moments as well as time periods that divided, combined, and also transformed the United States right into the nation it is today. The American flag didn’t resemble like it does currently. Apart from that, it undertook a lot of adjustments as well as alterations.
The American Revolutionary War
Enter the American Revolution. Occasionally described as the American War of Independence, or the Revolutionary War, it was a dispute which lasted from 1775-1783 and also enabled the original 13 colonies to continue to be independent from Great Britain. Beginning in Great Britain in the late 1790s, the Industrial Revolution ultimately made its way to the United States and also transformed the emphasis of the nation’s economy and also the way it manufactures products.
These conflicts emerged from expanding tensions in between locals of Great Britain’s 13 North American colonies and also the colonial government (which represented the British crown). Efforts by the British federal government to raise revenue by collectin tax from the colonies (especially the Stamp Act of 1765, the Townshend Tariffs of 1767 as well as the Tea Act of 1773) met with heated objection among several colonists, that disliked their lack of representation in Parliament and required the very same legal rights as various other British people.
George Washington was made its commander-in-chief. Congress wished they might force the British to discuss but George III rejected to negotiate. Rather, in August 1775 he stated that all the American colonies were in a state of disobedience.
By the fall of 1781, the American army had managed to compel the opponent to withdraw to Virginia’s Yorktown peninsula, near where the York River empties into Chesapeake Bay. Stating ailments, the British general sent his replacement, Charles O’Hara, to give up; after O’Hara came close to Rochambeau to surrender his sword (the Frenchman deferred to Washington), Washington gave the nod to his own deputy, Benjamin Lincoln, that accepted it. After French support helped the Continental Army compel the British surrender at Yorktown, Virginia, in 1781, the Americans had actually efficiently won their freedom, though combatting would certainly not officially finish til 1783.
The motion for American freedom efficiently won at Yorktown, modern observers did not see that as the decisive triumph. British as well as American mediators in Paris authorized preliminary peace terms in Paris late that November, as well as on September 3, 1783, Great Britain formally acknowledged the freedom of the United States in the Treaty of Paris.
Exactly how the American Flag became
The American flag was made to represent the new union of the thirteen initial states: it would certainly have thirteen stripes, alternate red and white, as well as thirteen stars, white on a blue area. One of the first flags had the stars organized in a circle, based on the idea that colonies were equal. The thirteen stripes, resting side-by-side, represented the battle for freedom; red stood for valiance, white signified purity and also blue stood for loyalty.
In 1818, after a couple of design adjustments, the United States Congress chose to keep the flag’s original thirteen stripes and add new stars to reflect each new state that got in the union.
While there is no doubt that the real Betsy Ross was worthy of interest in her own right, it is the legend of Betsy sewing the initial stars and stripes that has made her a remarkable historic figure. The Betsy Ross tale was brought to public attention in 1870 by her grand son, William Canby, in a speech he made to the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. Canby and also various other participants of Betsy’s family signed vouched affidavits mentioning that they heard the story of the making of the very first flag from Betsy’s own mouth.
According to the oral history, in 1776, 3 men – George Washington, Robert Morris, and also George Ross, went to Betsy Ross in her upholstery shop. On a paper Washington revealed, was an illustration of a flag with thirteen red as well as white stripes and thirteen 6-pointed stars.
Washington asked if Betsy could make a flag from the layout. Betsy responded: “I don’t know, yet I will try.” This line was utilized in the sworn statements of numerous of Betsy’s household members, suggesting that it is a direct quote from Betsy. As the tale goes, Betsy recommended transforming the stars to 5 points instead compared to 6.
Some historians believe that it was Francis Hopkisnon that offered birth to the suggestion of the Stars and Stripes. Francis Hopkinson was a preferred patriot, a lawyer, a Congressman from New Jersey, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, poet, artist, and identified civil servant.
He was assigned to the Continental Navy Board on November 6,1776. It was while working on the Continental Navy Board that he transformed his attention to designing the flag of the United States. Making use of stars because style is believed to have been the result of an experience in the war directly pertaining to his propriety.
A book in Hopkinson’s library at his home in Bordentown was taken by a Hessian soldier in December 1776, a dark year of the war. The book, Discourses on Public Occasions in America (London, 1762) by William Smith, D.D., had been a gift to him by the writer. The soldier, one I. Ewald, composed on the inside cover that he had seen the writer near Philadelphia which he, Ewald, had taken the book from a fine nation seat near Philadelphia. The book was subsequently provided to somebody in Philadelphia that returned it to Hopkinson. The soldier had composed over and listed below Hopkinson’s bookplate, which had 3 six pointed stars as well as his household motto, “Semper Paratus”, or “Always Ready”. The safe return of the book might well have represented to Hopkinson the resurgence of the Americans’ wish.
In a letter to the Board of Admiralty in 1780 Hopkinson asserted that he had actually created “the flag of the United States of America” in addition to a number of ornaments, devices, and checks showing up on bills of exchange, ship papers, the seals of the boards of Admiralty as well as Treasury, and also the Great Seal of the United States. Hopkinson had obtained nothing for this job, and currently he sent a bill and also asked “whether a Quarter Cask of the public wine” would certainly not be a practical and also appropriate incentive for his labors.
Even so, no one could be so sure who produced the American flag. The American flag is the sacred emblem of the country. As you see the flag silhouetted against the peaceful skies of the nation, you are reminded that the American flag stands for what you are – no more, no much less.
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As taken from the Star Spangled Banner:
O say can you see, by the dawn’s early light,
What so proudly we hailed at the twilight’s last gleaming,
Whose broad stripes and bright stars through the perilous fight,
O’er the ramparts we watched, were so gallantly streaming?
And the rockets’ red glare, the bombs bursting in air,
Gave proof through the night that our flag was still there;
O say does that star-spangled banner yet wave
O’er the land of the free and the home of the brave?
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