The history of the United States is large and also complex, however can be broken down right into milestones and time periods that separated, combined, and altered the United States into the country it is now. The American flag didn’t appear like it does currently. Apart from that, it underwent a lot of adjustments and alterations.
The American Revolutionary War
Enter the American Revolution. Often described as the American War of Independence, or the Revolutionary War, it was a conflict which lasted from 1775-1783 and also enabled the initial 13 colonies to remain independent from Great Britain. Starting in Great Britain in the late 1790s, the Industrial Revolution eventually made its way to the United States and altered the focus of the country’s economic situation as well as the method it produces products.
These tensions developed from expanding stress in between residents of Great Britain’s 13 North American colonies and the colonial government (which stood for the British crown). Efforts by the British government to elevate revenue by collectin tax from the colonies (notably the Stamp Act of 1765, the Townshend Tariffs of 1767 as well as the Tea Act of 1773) met with violent protest among lots of colonists, that disliked their lack of depiction in Parliament and also required the very same rights as various other British citizens.
George Washington was made its commander-in-chief. Congress wished they can require the British to discuss yet George III rejected to compromise. Instead, in August 1775 he declared that all the American colonies were in a state of disobedience.
By June 1776, with the Revolutionary War in full swing, an expanding bulk of the colonists had actually come to prefer self-reliance from Britain. That same year Richard Henry Lee of the Virginia Assembly offered Congress with resolutions stating the independence of the colonies, calling for a confederation and revealed the need to find foreign allies for a war versus Britain. On July 4th, the Continental Congress voted to take on the Declaration of Independence, composed by a five-man committee consisting of Franklin and also John Adams however written mainly by Jefferson. By the fall of 1781, the American forces had managed to compel the opponent to retreat to Virginia’s Yorktown peninsula, near where the York River empties right into Chesapeake Bay. Backed up by a French military commanded by General Jean Baptiste de Rochambeau, Washington moved against Yorktown with a total amount of around 14,000 soldiers, while a fleet of 36 French warships offshore stopped British support or evacuation. Trapped and subdued, the enemy was forced to surrender their entire army. Claiming disease, the British general sent his replacement, Charles O’Hara, to surrender; after O’Hara came close to Rochambeau to surrender his sword (the Frenchman deferred to Washington), Washington gave the nod to his own deputy, Benjamin Lincoln, that approved it. After French assistance aided the Continental Army require the British surrender at Yorktown, Virginia, in 1781, the Americans had actually successfully won their independence, though the war would certainly not formally end up until 1783.
The motion for American freedom efficiently won at Yorktown, contemporary historians did not see that as the crucial victory. British as well as American arbitrators in Paris signed initial peace terms in Paris late that November, as well as on September 3, 1783, Great Britain officially acknowledged the independence of the United States in the Treaty of Paris.
Just how the American Flag happened
The American flag was made to stand for the brand-new union of the thirteen initial states: it would certainly have thirteen stripes, alternating red as well as white, and also thirteen stars, white on a blue field. Among the first flags had the stars organized in a circle, based upon the suggestion that all colonies were equal. The thirteen stripes, laid out side-by-side, stood for the struggle for freedom; red stood for valor, white signified pureness and also blue stood for commitment.
In 1818, after a few layout changes, the United States Congress made a decision to retain the flag’s original thirteen stripes and also include new stars to reflect each new state that entered the union.
While there is no doubt that the actual Betsy Ross deserved interest in her own right, it is the legend of Betsy sewing the initial stars and stripes that has made her a memorable historical number. The Betsy Ross story was offered public attention in 1870 by her grandson, William Canby, in a speech he made to the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. Canby and also various other participants of Betsy’s family signed vouched testimonies stating that they heard the story of the making of the initial flag from Betsy’s very own mouth.
According to the oral history, in 1776, 3 men – George Washington, Robert Morris, and George Ross, saw Betsy Ross in her upholstery store. On a piece of paper Washington showed, was an illustration of a flag with thirteen red and white stripes and also thirteen six-pointed stars.
Washington asked if Betsy might make a flag from the layout. Betsy responded: “I don’t know, but I will try.” This line was made use of in the sworn declarations of many of Betsy’s household members, suggesting that it is a direct quote from Betsy. As the tale goes, Betsy suggested transforming the stars to five points rather compared to 6.
Some chroniclers believe that it was Francis Hopkisnon that gave birth to the suggestion of the Stars and Stripes. Francis Hopkinson was a popular patriot, a legal representative, a Congressman from New Jersey, an endorser of the Declaration of Independence, poet, musician, and also distinguished civil servant.
He was appointed to the Continental Navy Board on November 6,1776. It was while serving on the Continental Navy Board that he transformed his attention to making the flag of the United States. Making use of stars because style is believed to have been the result of an experience in the battle directly related to his propriety.
A book in Hopkinson’s library at his home in Bordentown was taken by a Hessian soldier in December 1776, a dark year of the war. The book, Discourses on Public Occasions in America (London, 1762) by William Smith, D.D., had actually been a present to him by the writer. The soldier, an I. Ewald, created on the inside cover that he had actually seen the author near Philadelphia which he, Ewald, had taken the book from a great country seat near Philadelphia. The book was subsequently provided to someone in Philadelphia who returned it to Hopkinson. The soldier had created above and below Hopkinson’s bookplate, which had three 6 pointed stars and his household slogan, “Semper Paratus”, or “Always Ready”. The secure return of the book could well have represented to Hopkinson the resurgence of the Americans’ hope.
In a letter to the Board of Admiralty in 1780 Hopkinson insisted that he had created “the flag of the United States of America” as well as a number of ornaments, devices, and checks appearing on bills of exchange, ship papers, the seals of the boards of Admiralty and Treasury, as well as the Great Seal of the United States. Hopkinson had gotten nothing for this work, and currently he submitted a bill and asked “whether a Quarter Cask of the public wine” would not be an affordable and correct reward for his labors.
Nevertheless, no one can be so certain who produced the American flag. The American flag is the spiritual symbol of the country. It signifies the peoples’ birthright, their heritage of freedom acquired with blood and also sadness. The title deed of freedom, which is the country’s to delight in and hold in trust for posterity. Eternal caution is the price of freedom. As you see the flag silhouetted in front of the serene skies of the country, you are reminded that the American flag stands for just what you are – no more, no much less.
Top American Flags near state of Maine
As taken from the Star Spangled Banner:
O say can you see, by the dawn’s early light,
What so proudly we hailed at the twilight’s last gleaming,
Whose broad stripes and bright stars through the perilous fight,
O’er the ramparts we watched, were so gallantly streaming?
And the rockets’ red glare, the bombs bursting in air,
Gave proof through the night that our flag was still there;
O say does that star-spangled banner yet wave
O’er the land of the free and the home of the brave?
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