The background of the United States is large and also intricate, but can be broken down into milestones and also periods that split, linked, as well as transformed the United States right into the nation it is today. The American flag really did not look like it does now. Apart from that, it underwent a lot of adjustments and also modifications.
The American Revolutionary War
Enter the American Revolution. Sometimes referred to as the American War of Independence, or the Revolutionary War, it was a war which lasted from 1775-1783 and also enabled the original 13 colonies to continue to be independent from Great Britain. Beginning in Great Britain in the late 1790s, the Industrial Revolution eventually made its way to the United States and also changed the focus of the nation’s economic situation and the means it produces products.
For more than a decade prior to the outbreak of the revolution in 1775, tensions had actually been developing between colonists and the British authorities. These stress developed from expanding stress between locals of Great Britain’s 13 North American colonies as well as the colonial government (which stood for the British crown). Attempts by the British government to raise revenue by collecting tax from the colonies (especially the Stamp Act of 1765, the Townshend Tariffs of 1767 as well as the Tea Act of 1773) met negative protest among several colonists, who disliked their lack of representation in Parliament as well as demanded the exact same civil liberties as other British subjects. Colonial resistance led to violence in 1770, when British soldiers opened fire on a mob of colonists, eliminating 5 men in just what was referred to as the Boston Massacre. After December 1773, when a band of Bostonians impersonated Mohawk Indians boarded British ships and disposed 342 chests of tea into Boston Harbor, an outraged Parliament passed a collection of steps (referred to as the Intolerable, or Coercive Acts) made to reassert imperial authority in Massachusetts.
George Washington was made its commander-in-chief. Congress wished they could compel the British to negotiate but George III rejected to negotiate. Instead, in August 1775 he declared that all the American colonies were in a state of rebellion.
By June 1776, with the Revolutionary War in progress, an expanding majority of the colonists had actually pertained to favor independence from Britain. That very same year Richard Henry Lee of the Virginia Assembly presented Congress with resolutions declaring the independence of the colonies, calling for a confederation as well as revealed the have to discover international allies for a battle versus Britain. On July 4th, the Continental Congress voted to take on the Declaration of Independence, prepared by a five-man committee including Franklin and John Adams yet written mainly by Jefferson. By the autumn of 1781, the American army had begun to force the adversary to withdraw to Virginia’s Yorktown peninsula, near where the York River empties into Chesapeake Bay. Supported by a French military commanded by General Jean Baptiste de Rochambeau, Washington moved against Yorktown with a total of around 14,000 soldiers, while a fleet of 36 French battleships offshore avoided British reinforcement or evacuation. Entrapped and subdued, the opponent was compelled to surrender their whole military. Stating illness, the British general sent his deputy, Charles O’Hara, to give up; after O’Hara approached Rochambeau to surrender his sword (the Frenchman deferred to Washington), Washington gave the nod to his own replacement, Benjamin Lincoln, that accepted it. After French help aided the Continental Army force the British surrender at Yorktown, Virginia, in 1781, the Americans had actually successfully won their self-reliance, though combatting would certainly not formally finish until 1783.
The movement for American freedom effectively triumphed at Yorktown, contemporary historians did not see that as the crucial victory. British armies continued to be based around Charleston, and also the powerful major military still stayed in New York. The British exit of their troops from Charleston as well as Savannah in late 1782 finally pointed to completion of the conflict. British as well as American negotiators in Paris authorized initial peace terms in Paris late that November, and also on September 3, 1783, Great Britain officially recognized the freedom of the United States in the Treaty of Paris. At the same time, Britain authorized separate peace treaties with France and Spain (which had gotten in the dispute in 1779), bringing the American Revolution to a close after eight lengthy years.
How the American Flag happened
The American flag was made to stand for the new union of the thirteen initial states: it would have thirteen stripes, alternating red as well as white, and thirteen stars, white on a blue area. Among the initial flags had actually the stars arranged in a circle, based on the idea that all colonies were equal. The thirteen stripes, laid out side by side, represented the struggle for freedom; red meant valiance, white signified pureness and also blue represented commitment.
In 1818, after a few style modifications, the United States Congress chose to retain the flag’s initial thirteen stripes and add brand-new stars to reflect each brand-new state that joined the union.
While there is no question that the real Betsy Ross was worthy of interest in her very own right, it is the legend of Betsy stitching the initial stars and stripes that has actually made her a memorable historical figure. The Betsy Ross story was given public attention in 1870 by her grandson, William Canby, in a speech he made to the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. Canby and various other members of Betsy’s family members signed sworn affidavits specifying that they heard the tale of the making of the initial flag from Betsy’s own mouth.
According to the narrative history, in 1776, 3 men – George Washington, Robert Morris, as well as George Ross, visited Betsy Ross in her furniture shop. She accompanied them to her parlor, where they could have a private meeting. Here, Washington pulled a folded up piece of paper from his inside coat pocket. On it, was a drawing of a flag with thirteen red as well as white stripes and thirteen 6-pointed stars.
Washington asked if Betsy could make a flag from the style. Betsy responded: “I don’t know, yet I will try.” This line was made use of in the vouched statements of several of Betsy’s family participants, recommending that it is a direct quote from Betsy. As the tale goes, Betsy recommended transforming the stars to 5 points instead compared to six.
Some people think that it was Francis Hopkisnon that gave birth to the suggestion of the Stars and Stripes. Francis Hopkinson was a prominent patriot, a lawyer, a Congressman from New Jersey, an endorser of the Declaration of Independence, poet, musician, and also identified civil servant.
He was assigned to the Continental Navy Board on November 6,1776. It was while working on the Continental Navy Board that he turned his focus on designing the flag of the United States. The use of stars in that design is believed to have actually been the result of an experience in the war directly pertaining to his propriety.
A book in Hopkinson’s collection at his house in Bordentown was taken by a Hessian soldier in December 1776, a dark year of the war. The soldier, an I. Ewald, composed on the within cover that he had seen the author near Philadelphia and also that he, Ewald, had taken the book from a fine nation seat near Philadelphia. The soldier had actually composed above as well as below Hopkinson’s bookplate, which had 3 six pointed stars and his family adage, “Semper Paratus”, or “Always Ready”.
In a letter to the Board of Admiralty in 1780 Hopkinson asserted that he had developed “the flag of the United States of America” along with numerous ornaments, devices, and checks showing up on bills of exchange, ship papers, the seals of the boards of Admiralty as well as Treasury, and also the Great Seal of the United States. Hopkinson had actually obtained absolutely nothing for this work, and now he submitted a bill and also asked “whether a Quarter Cask of the public wine” would certainly not be a sensible and correct reward for his labors.
However, nobody can be so sure who developed the American flag. The American flag is the spiritual emblem of the country. It signifies the peoples’ birthright, their heritage of liberty bought with blood and also sorrow. The title deed of liberty, which is the nation’s to enjoy as well as hold in trust for posterity. Everlasting watchfulness is the price of liberty. As you see the flag silhouetted against the tranquil skies of the nation, you are reminded that the American flag stands for what you are – no more, no much less.
Top American Flags close to state of Virginia
As quoted from the Star Spangled Banner:
O say can you see, by the dawn’s early light,
What so proudly we hailed at the twilight’s last gleaming,
Whose broad stripes and bright stars through the perilous fight,
O’er the ramparts we watched, were so gallantly streaming?
And the rockets’ red glare, the bombs bursting in air,
Gave proof through the night that our flag was still there;
O say does that star-spangled banner yet wave
O’er the land of the free and the home of the brave?
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