The history of the United States is vast as well as intricate, however can be broken down right into milestones as well as time periods that separated, linked, and changed the United States into the nation it is today. The American flag didn’t look like it does currently. Aside from that, it went through a great deal of adjustments and modifications.
The American Revolutionary War
Enter the American Revolution. Occasionally described as the American War of Independence, or the Revolutionary War, it was a war which lasted from 1775-1783 and allowed the original 13 colonies to continue to be independent from Great Britain. Starting in Great Britain in the late 1790s, the Industrial Revolution at some point made its path to the United States as well as altered the emphasis of the nation’s economic climate as well as the way it manufactures items.
For greater than a decade prior to the episode of the revolution in 1775, conflict had been building between colonists and also the British authorities. These stress occurred from expanding stress between residents of Great Britain’s 13 North American colonies as well as the colonial government (which stood for the British crown). Efforts by the British government to elevate profits by taxing the colonies (notably the Stamp Act of 1765, the Townshend Tariffs of 1767 and the Tea Act of 1773) consulted with violent demonstration amongst many colonists, who resented their absence of depiction in Parliament and also required the exact same rights as various other British people. Colonial resistance brought about violence in 1770, when British soldiers opened fire on a mob of colonists, killing 5 men in just what was referred to as the Boston Massacre. After December 1773, when a band of Bostonians dressed as Mohawk Indians boarded British ships then dumped 342 chests of tea into Boston Harbor, an outraged Parliament passed a collection of measures (known as the Intolerable, or Coercive Acts) designed to reassert imperial authority in Massachusetts.
The Continental Congress convened in May 1775 and accepted to raise an army. George Washington was made its leader. Congress wished they might compel the British to work out yet George III refused to compromise. Instead, in August 1775 he proclaimed that the American colonies were in a state of disobedience. Rule by royal governor fell down as well as the individuals required government without imperial interference. In May 1776 Congress decided that imperial government must stop and also government ought to be ‘for individuals’. Subsequently the colonies prepared state constitutions to change their charters.
By the autumn of 1781, the American army had managed to force the opponent to withdraw to Virginia’s Yorktown peninsula, near where the York River empties into Chesapeake Bay. Claiming ailments, the British general sent his replacement, Charles O’Hara, to give up; after O’Hara approached Rochambeau to surrender his sword (the Frenchman deferred to Washington), Washington provided the nod to his very own deputy, Benjamin Lincoln, who approved it. After French help helped the Continental Army compel the British abandonment at Yorktown, Virginia, in 1781, the Americans had effectively won their freedom, though the war would certainly not formally end up until 1783.
The movement for American independence effectively triumphed at Yorktown, modern historians did not see that as the definitive victory. British and American negotiators in Paris signed preliminary peace terms in Paris late that November, as well as on September 3, 1783, Great Britain officially acknowledged the freedom of the United States in the Treaty of Paris.
How the American Flag came to be
The American flag was designed to represent the brand-new union of the thirteen initial states: it would certainly have thirteen stripes, alternate red and also white, and also thirteen stars, white on a blue area. One of the initial flags had actually the stars arranged in a circle, based upon the idea that colonies were equal. The thirteen stripes, resting side-by-side, stood for the struggle for freedom; red stood for valiance, white signified pureness as well as blue stood for commitment.
In 1818, after a couple of design adjustments, the United States Congress made a decision to keep the flag’s original thirteen stripes and include brand-new stars to show each brand-new state that joined the union.
While there is no doubt that the real Betsy Ross was worthy of interest in her very own right, it is the tale of Betsy sewing the initial stars and stripes that has made her a remarkable historic figure. The Betsy Ross story was offered spotlight in 1870 by her grand son, William Canby, in a speech he made to the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. Canby and also various other members of Betsy’s family members signed vouched testimonies stating that they heard the tale of the production of the first flag from Betsy’s own mouth.
Based on the oral history, in 1776, 3 men – George Washington, Robert Morris, and George Ross, saw Betsy Ross in her furniture store. She accompanied them to her parlor, where they could have a private meeting. Here, Washington took a folded up paper from his inside jacket pocket. On it, was a sketch of a flag with thirteen red as well as white stripes as well as thirteen six-pointed stars.
Washington asked if Betsy might make a flag from the design. Betsy reacted: “I don’t know, yet I will certainly try.” This line was used in the vouched declarations of many of Betsy’s family members, suggesting that it is a direct quote from Betsy. As the tale goes, Betsy recommended transforming the stars to five points rather than six.
However, some people believe that it was Francis Hopkisnon who gave birth to the suggestion of the Stars and Stripes. Francis Hopkinson was a prominent patriot, a lawyer, a Congressman from New Jersey, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, poet, artist, as well as distinguished civil servant.
He was appointed to the Continental Navy Board on November 6,1776. It was while serving on the Continental Navy Board that he transformed his attention to developing the flag of the United States. Using stars in that layout is believed to have been the result of an experience in the war straightly related to his propriety.
A book in Hopkinson’s library at his home in Bordentown was taken by a Hessian soldier in December 1776, a dark year of the war. The soldier, one I. Ewald, created on the inside cover that he had seen the author near Philadelphia as well as that he, Ewald, had actually taken the book from a great country seat near Philadelphia. The soldier had created over as well as below Hopkinson’s bookplate, which had 3 6 pointed stars and also his household motto, “Semper Paratus”, or “Always Ready”.
In a letter to the Board of Admiralty in 1780 Hopkinson insisted that he had created “the flag of the United States of America” as well as several ornaments, devices, and checks appearing on bills of exchange, ship papers, the seals of the boards of Admiralty as well as Treasury, as well as the Great Seal of the United States. Hopkinson had actually gotten absolutely nothing for this job, as well as now he submitted a bill and asked “whether a Quarter Cask of the public wine” would certainly not be a sensible and correct reward for his labors.
Even so, nobody could be so certain that developed the American flag. The American flag is the spiritual symbol of the nation. As you see the flag silhouetted in front of the peaceful skies of the nation, you are reminded that the American flag stands for exactly what you are – no more, no much less.
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As taken from the Star Spangled Banner:
O say can you see, by the dawn’s early light,
What so proudly we hailed at the twilight’s last gleaming,
Whose broad stripes and bright stars through the perilous fight,
O’er the ramparts we watched, were so gallantly streaming?
And the rockets’ red glare, the bombs bursting in air,
Gave proof through the night that our flag was still there;
O say does that star-spangled banner yet wave
O’er the land of the free and the home of the brave?
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