The history of the United States is large and complicated, but can be broken down into moments and time periods that divided, combined, as well as altered the United States right into the nation it is now. The American flag did not look like it does now. Other than that, it undertook a lot of changes and also adjustments.
The American Revolutionary War
Enter the American Revolution. Sometimes described as the American War of Independence, or the Revolutionary War, it was a conflict which lasted from 1775-1783 and also allowed the original 13 colonies to remain independent from Great Britain. Beginning in Great Britain in the late 1790s, the Industrial Revolution at some point made its way to the United States and also altered the focus of the nation’s economic situation and the means it makes products.
These tensions developed from growing tensions in between locals of Great Britain’s 13 North American colonies and the early american government (which represented the British crown). Attempts by the British federal government to raise income by collectin tax from the colonies (especially the Stamp Act of 1765, the Townshend Tariffs of 1767 and also the Tea Act of 1773) met with heated demonstration among many colonists, who resented their lack of representation in Parliament and demanded the exact same rights as various other British people.
George Washington was made its commander-in-chief. Congress wished they could compel the British to negotiate yet George III refused to negotiate. Rather, in August 1775 he stated that all the American colonies were in a state of rebellion.
By June 1776, with the Revolutionary War in progress, a growing bulk of the colonists had come to favor freedom from Britain. That same year Richard Henry Lee of the Virginia Assembly presented Congress with resolutions stating the self-reliance of the colonies, requiring a confederation and also shared the have to locate foreign allies for a battle versus Britain. On July 4th, the Continental Congress elected to embrace the Declaration of Independence, composed by a five-man board including Franklin and also John Adams however created mostly by Jefferson. By the fall of 1781, the American army had managed to compel the adversary to retreat to Virginia’s Yorktown peninsula, near where the York River clears into Chesapeake Bay. Backed up by a French army commanded by General Jean Baptiste de Rochambeau, Washington moved against Yorktown with a total amount of around 14,000 soldiers, while a fleet of 36 French warships offshore avoided British reinforcement or evacuation. Caught as well as subdued, the adversary was required to surrender their entire army. Stating ailments, the British general sent his deputy, Charles O’Hara, to give up; after O’Hara approached Rochambeau to surrender his sword (the Frenchman deferred to Washington), Washington gave the nod to his own replacement, Benjamin Lincoln, who accepted it. After French help aided the Continental Army force the British abandonment at Yorktown, Virginia, in 1781, the Americans had actually successfully won their self-reliance, though combatting would certainly not officially end up until 1783.
The motion for American independence properly won at Yorktown, contemporary historians did not see that as the definitive victory. British armies stayed stationed around Charleston, as well as the powerful major military still resided in New York. The British removal of their troops from Charleston and Savannah in late 1782 ultimately pointed to the end of the conflict. British and American negotiators in Paris authorized initial peace terms in Paris late that November, as well as on September 3, 1783, Great Britain formally acknowledged the independence of the United States in the Treaty of Paris. At the same time, Britain authorized different peace treaties with France and also Spain (which had gone into the dispute in 1779), bringing the American Revolution to a close after 8 lengthy years.
Exactly how the American Flag came to be
The American flag was made to represent the brand-new union of the thirteen initial states: it would have thirteen stripes, alternate red as well as white, and also thirteen stars, white on a blue area. One of the initial flags had the stars arranged in a circle, based on the concept that colonies were equal. The thirteen stripes, resting side-by-side, represented the battle for freedom; red meant valor, white signified pureness as well as blue represented commitment.
In 1818, after a couple of design modifications, the United States Congress decided to maintain the flag’s initial thirteen stripes and include brand-new stars to reflect each new state that entered the union.
While there is no question that the real Betsy Ross was worthy of interest in her own right, it is the legend of Betsy stitching the very first stars and stripes that has made her an extraordinary historic number. The Betsy Ross tale was offered spotlight in 1870 by her grand son, William Canby, in a speech he made to the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. Canby as well as other participants of Betsy’s family authorized sworn testimonies specifying that they heard the story of the production of the initial flag from Betsy’s own mouth.
According to the dental history, in 1776, three men – George Washington, Robert Morris, as well as George Ross, checked out Betsy Ross in her furniture store. On a piece of paper Washington revealed, was a drawing of a flag with thirteen red as well as white stripes as well as thirteen six-pointed stars.
Washington asked if Betsy can make a flag from the layout. Betsy responded: “I do not know, but I will certainly try.” This line was utilized in the vouched statements of many of Betsy’s family members, recommending that it is a straight quote from Betsy. As the story goes, Betsy recommended altering the stars to 5 points as opposed to six. She demonstrated to them ways to do it with simply one snip of her scissors. They all agreed to change the layout to have stars with 5 points.
However, some chroniclers believe that it was Francis Hopkisnon that brought to life the concept of the Stars and Stripes. Francis Hopkinson was a prominent patriot, a lawyer, a Congressman from New Jersey, an endorser of the Declaration of Independence, poet, musician, as well as identified civil servant.
He was assigned to the Continental Navy Board on November 6,1776. It was while serving on the Continental Navy Board that he transformed his attention to developing the flag of the United States. The use of stars in that layout is believed to have actually been the outcome of an experience in the war straightly related to his propriety.
A book in Hopkinson’s collection at his home in Bordentown was taken by a Hessian soldier in December 1776, a dark year of the battle. The book, Discourses on Public Occasions in America (London, 1762) by William Smith, D.D., had actually been a present to him by the author. The soldier, an I. Ewald, wrote on the inside cover that he had seen the writer near Philadelphia and that he, Ewald, had taken the book from a great nation seat near Philadelphia. The book was consequently offered to a person in Philadelphia who returned it to Hopkinson. The soldier had actually written above and also below Hopkinson’s bookplate, which had three six pointed stars as well as his household slogan, “Semper Paratus”, or “Always Ready”. The safe return of the book might well have actually symbolized to Hopkinson the resurgence of the Americans’ wish.
In a letter to the Board of Admiralty in 1780 Hopkinson insisted that he had developed “the flag of the United States of America” as well as a number of ornaments, devices, and checks showing up on bills of exchange, ship documents, the seals of the boards of Admiralty and Treasury, and also the Great Seal of the United States. Hopkinson had actually gotten nothing for this work, and now he submitted a bill and also asked “whether a Quarter Cask of the public wine” would not be an affordable as well as correct incentive for his labors.
Also so, nobody can be so certain who produced the American flag. The American flag is the spiritual emblem of the nation. As you see the flag silhouetted against the tranquil skies of the nation, you are reminded that the American flag stands for just what you are – no more, no less.
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As taken from the Star Spangled Banner:
O say can you see, by the dawn’s early light,
What so proudly we hailed at the twilight’s last gleaming,
Whose broad stripes and bright stars through the perilous fight,
O’er the ramparts we watched, were so gallantly streaming?
And the rockets’ red glare, the bombs bursting in air,
Gave proof through the night that our flag was still there;
O say does that star-spangled banner yet wave
O’er the land of the free and the home of the brave?
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