The background of the United States is large as well as complex, yet can be broken down into milestones and also time periods that separated, combined, and changed the United States into the country it is now. The American flag really did not resemble like it does currently. Besides that, it went through a great deal of changes and adjustments.
The American Revolutionary War
Enter the American Revolution. Often described as the American War of Independence, or the Revolutionary War, it was a conflict which lasted from 1775-1783 and enabled the original 13 colonies to continue to be independent from Great Britain. Beginning in Great Britain in the late 1790s, the Industrial Revolution eventually made its path to the United States as well as altered the focus of the nation’s economic climate and the means it manufactures products.
For more than a decade before the outbreak of the revolution in 1775, tensions had been developing in between colonists as well as the British authorities. These stress arose from expanding tensions between citizens of Great Britain’s 13 North American colonies and the colonial government (which represented the British crown). Attempts by the British government to raise revenue by collecting tax from the colonies (especially the Stamp Act of 1765, the Townshend Tariffs of 1767 as well as the Tea Act of 1773) met violent demonstration amongst lots of colonists, that disliked their lack of depiction in Parliament as well as required the same rights as other British citizens. Colonial resistance resulted in physical violence in 1770, when British soldiers opened fire on a crowd of colonists, killing 5 men in just what was referred to as the Boston Massacre. After December 1773, when a band of Bostonians dressed as Mohawk Indians boarded British ships then unloaded 342 chests of tea right into Boston Harbor, an outraged Parliament passed a collection of measures (referred to as the Intolerable, or Coercive Acts) made to reassert royal authority in Massachusetts.
The Continental Congress convened in May 1775 as well as agreed to make an army. George Washington was made its commander-in-chief. Congress wished they can compel the British to discuss yet George III refused to negotiate. Rather, in August 1775 he declared that all the American colonies were in a state of disobedience. Rule by royal governor fell down as well as the individuals required government without imperial interference. In May 1776 Congress made a decision that imperial government should stop as well as government needs to be ‘for individuals’. Consequently the colonies prepared state constitutions to replace their charters.
By the autumn of 1781, the American forces had begun to force the opponent to withdraw to Virginia’s Yorktown peninsula, near where the York River empties right into Chesapeake Bay. Claiming disease, the British general sent his replacement, Charles O’Hara, to give up; after O’Hara came close to Rochambeau to surrender his sword (the Frenchman deferred to Washington), Washington provided the nod to his own replacement, Benjamin Lincoln, who accepted it. After French support helped the Continental Army compel the British abandonment at Yorktown, Virginia, in 1781, the Americans had actually efficiently won their self-reliance, though the battle would certainly not officially end until 1783.
The motion for American independence successfully triumphed at Yorktown, contemporary observers did not see that as the crucial victory. British armies remained stationed around Charleston, and the powerful major army still stayed in New York. The British removal of their troops from Charleston as well as Savannah in late 1782 ultimately indicated completion of the conflict. British and also American arbitrators in Paris signed preliminary peace terms in Paris late that November, and on September 3, 1783, Great Britain officially recognized the freedom of the United States in the Treaty of Paris. At the same time, Britain signed separate peace treaties with France and Spain (which had actually entered the dispute in 1779), bringing the American Revolution to a close after 8 lengthy years.
Exactly how the American Flag came to be
The American flag was developed to stand for the brand-new union of the thirteen original states: it would certainly have thirteen stripes, alternate red and also white, and thirteen stars, white on a blue area. Among the very first flags had the stars arranged in a circle, based on the suggestion that colonies were equal. The thirteen stripes, laid out side by side, stood for the battle for independence; red stood for valor, white signified purity and also blue represented commitment.
In 1818, after a couple of design changes, the United States Congress decided to maintain the flag’s initial thirteen stripes as well as include new stars to reflect each brand-new state that joined the union.
While there is no question that the genuine Betsy Ross was worthy of interest in her own right, it is the tale of Betsy sewing the very first stars and stripes that has made her an unforgettable historical figure. The Betsy Ross story was offered spotlight in 1870 by her grandson, William Canby, in a speech he made to the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. Canby as well as various other participants of Betsy’s family signed sworn testimonies specifying that they heard the tale of the making of the first flag from Betsy’s own mouth.
According to the oral history, in 1776, 3 men – George Washington, Robert Morris, and also George Ross, went to Betsy Ross in her furniture shop. She accompanied them to her parlor, where they might have a private meeting. Here, Washington pulled a folded piece of paper from his inside coat pocket. On it, was a sketch of a flag with thirteen red as well as white stripes and thirteen 6-pointed stars.
Washington asked if Betsy might make a flag from the layout. Betsy reacted: “I don’t know, yet I will certainly attempt.” This line was used in the vouched statements of several of Betsy’s family participants, suggesting that it is a direct quote from Betsy. As the tale goes, Betsy recommended altering the stars to five points instead than six.
However, some chroniclers think that it was Francis Hopkisnon who brought to life the idea of the Stars and Stripes. Francis Hopkinson was a popular patriot, an attorney, a Congressman from New Jersey, an endorser of the Declaration of Independence, poet, musician, and also distinguished civil servant.
He was appointed to the Continental Navy Board on November 6,1776. It was while working on the Continental Navy Board that he transformed his attention to making the flag of the United States. Using stars because design is thought to have actually been the outcome of an experience in the battle straightly pertaining to his propriety.
A book in Hopkinson’s library at his home in Bordentown was taken by a Hessian soldier in December 1776, a dark year of the battle. The soldier, an I. Ewald, wrote on the inside cover that he had actually seen the author near Philadelphia and also that he, Ewald, had actually taken the book from a fine nation seat near Philadelphia. The soldier had written above and listed below Hopkinson’s bookplate, which had three 6 pointed stars as well as his household adage, “Semper Paratus”, or “Always Ready”.
In a letter to the Board of Admiralty in 1780 Hopkinson insisted that he had actually created “the flag of the United States of America” in addition to numerous ornaments, devices, and checks appearing on bills of exchange, ship papers, the seals of the boards of Admiralty and Treasury, as well as the Great Seal of the United States. Hopkinson had actually obtained absolutely nothing for this work, and also now he submitted a bill as well as asked “whether a Quarter Cask of the public wine” would certainly not be a reasonable and appropriate incentive for his labors.
Even so, no one can be so certain that developed the American flag. The American flag is the sacred symbol of the country. As you see the flag silhouetted against the relaxed skies of the nation, you are reminded that the American flag stands for what you are – no more, no less.
Top American Flags close to state of Hawaii
As taken from the Star Spangled Banner:
O say can you see, by the dawn’s early light,
What so proudly we hailed at the twilight’s last gleaming,
Whose broad stripes and bright stars through the perilous fight,
O’er the ramparts we watched, were so gallantly streaming?
And the rockets’ red glare, the bombs bursting in air,
Gave proof through the night that our flag was still there;
O say does that star-spangled banner yet wave
O’er the land of the free and the home of the brave?
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