The history of the United States is vast and also complicated, but can be broken down right into milestones as well as time periods that split, linked, as well as transformed the United States right into the country it is today. The American flag did not look like it does currently. Apart from that, it undertook a great deal of changes and also alterations.
The American Revolutionary War
Enter the American Revolution. Sometimes described as the American War of Independence, or the Revolutionary War, it was a war which lasted from 1775-1783 and allowed the original 13 colonies to stay independent from Great Britain. Beginning in Great Britain in the late 1790s, the Industrial Revolution at some point made its way to the United States as well as altered the focus of the nation’s economic situation as well as the method it makes products.
These problems emerged from growing tensions in between residents of Great Britain’s 13 North American colonies and also the early american government (which represented the British crown). Attempts by the British federal government to elevate income by collectin tax from the colonies (especially the Stamp Act of 1765, the Townshend Tariffs of 1767 as well as the Tea Act of 1773) met with heated objection among many colonists, who resented their absence of depiction in Parliament and demanded the same civil liberties as various other British citizens.
George Washington was made its commander in chief. Congress hoped they might compel the British to negotiate however George III refused to negotiate. Instead, in August 1775 he stated that all the American colonies were in a state of disobedience.
By June 1776, with the Revolutionary War in progress, an expanding bulk of the colonists had come to prefer self-reliance from Britain. That same year Richard Henry Lee of the Virginia Assembly provided Congress with resolutions declaring the independence of the colonies, calling for a confederation and also shared the have to locate international allies for a battle against Britain. On July 4th, the Continental Congress elected to adopt the Declaration of Independence, drafted by a five-man board including Franklin as well as John Adams yet created mostly by Jefferson. By the fall of 1781, the American forces had begun to compel the opponent to retreat to Virginia’s Yorktown peninsula, near where the York River empties right into Chesapeake Bay. Backed up by a French military led by General Jean Baptiste de Rochambeau, Washington moved against Yorktown with a total of around 14,000 soldiers, while a fleet of 36 French battleships offshore prevented British reinforcement or evacuation. Entrapped and also subdued, the adversary was forced to surrender their entire military. Stating disease, the British general sent his replacement, Charles O’Hara, to give up; after O’Hara approached Rochambeau to surrender his sword (the Frenchman deferred to Washington), Washington gave the nod to his very own replacement, Benjamin Lincoln, who accepted it. After French support assisted the Continental Army compel the British surrender at Yorktown, Virginia, in 1781, the Americans had actually efficiently won their self-reliance, though the battle would certainly not officially finish until 1783.
Though the motion for American independence efficiently triumphed at Yorktown, contemporary historians did not see that as the definitive success yet. British forces continued to be stationed around Charleston, as well as the effective main army still resided in New York. The British exit of their soldiers from Charleston and also Savannah in late 1782 ultimately indicated completion of the dispute. British and also American negotiators in Paris signed preliminary peace terms in Paris late that November, and also on September 3, 1783, Great Britain formally recognized the independence of the United States in the Treaty of Paris. At the same time, Britain signed separate peace treaties with France as well as Spain (which had actually gone into the conflict in 1779), bringing the American Revolution to a close after 8 long years.
Just how the American Flag came to be
The American flag was designed to stand for the new union of the thirteen original states: it would certainly have thirteen stripes, alternate red as well as white, and also thirteen stars, white on a blue area. One of the initial flags had the stars arranged in a circle, based on the concept that colonies were equal. The thirteen stripes, resting side by side, represented the struggle for independence; red meant valiance, white signified pureness and also blue stood for commitment.
In 1818, after a few design adjustments, the United States Congress chose to preserve the flag’s original thirteen stripes and add new stars to reflect each brand-new state that joined the union.
While there is no doubt that the actual Betsy Ross was worthy of interest in her own right, it is the legend of Betsy stitching the first stars and stripes that has made her a remarkable historical figure. The Betsy Ross tale was given public attention in 1870 by her grand son, William Canby, in a speech he made to the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. Canby as well as various other participants of Betsy’s household signed vouched affidavits stating that they listened to the tale of the making of the very first flag from Betsy’s very own mouth.
Based on the oral history, in 1776, 3 men – George Washington, Robert Morris, and also George Ross, went to Betsy Ross in her upholstery shop. She accompanied them to her parlor, where they can have a private meeting. Right here, Washington took a folded paper from his inside coat pocket. On it, was a drawing of a flag with thirteen red and white stripes as well as thirteen 6-pointed stars.
Washington asked if Betsy might make a flag from the layout. Betsy responded: “I don’t know, however I will certainly try.” This line was made use of in the sworn declarations of a number of Betsy’s family members, recommending that it is a straight quote from Betsy. As the tale goes, Betsy recommended altering the stars to 5 points rather than 6. She demonstrated to them the best ways to do it with just one snip of her scissors. They all agreed to transform the style to have stars with five points.
Some historians think that it was Francis Hopkisnon who provided birth to the concept of the Stars and Stripes. Francis Hopkinson was a prominent patriot, a lawyer, a Congressman from New Jersey, an endorser of the Declaration of Independence, poet, musician, and also distinguished civil servant.
He was appointed to the Continental Navy Board on November 6,1776. It was while serving on the Continental Navy Board that he transformed his focus on making the flag of the United States. The use of stars because style is believed to have been the outcome of an experience in the battle straightly related to his propriety.
A book in Hopkinson’s collection at his home in Bordentown was taken by a Hessian soldier in December 1776, a dark year of the battle. The soldier, an I. Ewald, wrote on the within cover that he had actually seen the author near Philadelphia and that he, Ewald, had actually taken the publication from a great nation seat near Philadelphia. The soldier had actually written above as well as listed below Hopkinson’s bookplate, which had three 6 pointed stars and his household motto, “Semper Paratus”, or “Always Ready”.
In a letter to the Board of Admiralty in 1780 Hopkinson insisted that he had developed “the flag of the United States of America” in addition to a number of ornaments, devices, and checks appearing on bills of exchange, ship documents, the seals of the boards of Admiralty and Treasury, and the Great Seal of the United States. Hopkinson had actually gotten nothing for this work, and now he sent a bill and also asked “whether a Quarter Cask of the public wine” would certainly not be a reasonable and also correct incentive for his labors.
Even so, nobody could be so certain that developed the American flag. The American flag is the sacred emblem of the nation. As you see the flag silhouetted against the relaxed skies of the country, you are reminded that the American flag stands for what you are – no more, no less.
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As quoted from the Star Spangled Banner:
O say can you see, by the dawn’s early light,
What so proudly we hailed at the twilight’s last gleaming,
Whose broad stripes and bright stars through the perilous fight,
O’er the ramparts we watched, were so gallantly streaming?
And the rockets’ red glare, the bombs bursting in air,
Gave proof through the night that our flag was still there;
O say does that star-spangled banner yet wave
O’er the land of the free and the home of the brave?
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