The background of the United States is vast as well as intricate, but can be broken down into milestones and also periods that divided, linked, as well as transformed the United States right into the country it is today. The American flag didn’t appear like it does now. Aside from that, it undertook a great deal of modifications and also alterations.
The American Revolutionary War
Enter the American Revolution. Sometimes described as the American War of Independence, or the Revolutionary War, it was a war which lasted from 1775-1783 as well as enabled the initial 13 colonies to remain independent from Great Britain. Beginning in Great Britain in the late 1790s, the Industrial Revolution eventually made its way to the United States and transformed the focus of the nation’s economy as well as the method it makes items.
For more than 10 years before the outbreak of the revolution in 1775, conflict had actually been building in between colonists as well as the British authorities. These tensions arose from expanding stress between locals of Great Britain’s 13 North American colonies and also the colonial government (which represented the British crown). Attempts by the British government to increase revenue by taxing the colonies (significantly the Stamp Act of 1765, the Townshend Tariffs of 1767 and also the Tea Act of 1773) consulted with violent protest among many colonists, who disliked their absence of depiction in Parliament as well as demanded the very same legal rights as various other British people. Colonial resistance brought about physical violence in 1770, when British soldiers opened fire on a crowd of colonists, killing 5 men in what was called the Boston Massacre. After December 1773, when a band of Bostonians impersonated Mohawk Indians boarded British ships then dumped 342 containers of tea right into Boston Harbor, an outraged Parliament passed a series of measures (known as the Intolerable, or Coercive Acts) created to reassert royal authority in Massachusetts.
George Washington was made its leader. Congress hoped they might compel the British to bargain however George III rejected to compromise. Instead, in August 1775 he proclaimed that all the American colonies were in a state of disobedience.
By the fall of 1781, the American army had actually managed to require the adversary to retreat to Virginia’s Yorktown peninsula, near where the York River empties into Chesapeake Bay. Claiming ailments, the British general sent his replacement, Charles O’Hara, to give up; after O’Hara came close to Rochambeau to surrender his sword (the Frenchman deferred to Washington), Washington gave the nod to his own replacement, Benjamin Lincoln, who accepted it. After French support helped the Continental Army force the British surrender at Yorktown, Virginia, in 1781, the Americans had efficiently won their independence, though fighting would certainly not formally end up until 1783.
The movement for American independence efficiently triumphed at Yorktown, modern historians did not see that as the decisive victory. British and American arbitrators in Paris signed initial peace terms in Paris late that November, as well as on September 3, 1783, Great Britain officially recognized the independence of the United States in the Treaty of Paris.
How the American Flag became
The American flag was created to represent the new union of the thirteen original states: it would certainly have thirteen stripes, alternating red and also white, as well as thirteen stars, white on a blue area. Among the initial flags had the stars organized in a circle, based upon the idea that colonies were equal. The thirteen stripes, resting side-by-side, represented the battle for freedom; red represented valor, white signified purity as well as blue stood for loyalty.
In 1818, after a couple of style changes, the United States Congress decided to retain the flag’s original thirteen stripes and also include brand-new stars to reflect each brand-new state that got in the union.
While there is no question that the real Betsy Ross deserved interest in her very own right, it is the tale of Betsy sewing the initial stars and stripes that has actually made her an extraordinary historical figure. The Betsy Ross tale was brought to public attention in 1870 by her grandson, William Canby, in a speech he made to the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. Canby as well as other members of Betsy’s household authorized vouched testimonies specifying that they listened to the tale of the making of the very first flag from Betsy’s very own mouth.
According to the dental history, in 1776, three men – George Washington, Robert Morris, and also George Ross, went to Betsy Ross in her furniture shop. On a paper Washington showed, was a drawing of a flag with thirteen red and also white stripes and also thirteen six-pointed stars.
Washington asked if Betsy might make a flag from the layout. Betsy reacted: “I do not know, but I will certainly attempt.” This line was used in the sworn statements of numerous of Betsy’s household members, recommending that it is a straight quote from Betsy. As the story goes, Betsy recommended altering the stars to five points rather than 6.
Some people think that it was Francis Hopkisnon that offered birth to the concept of the Stars and Stripes. Francis Hopkinson was a prominent patriot, a lawyer, a Congressman from New Jersey, an endorser of the Declaration of Independence, poet, musician, as well as distinguished civil servant.
He was appointed to the Continental Navy Board on November 6,1776. It was while serving on the Continental Navy Board that he turned his attention to creating the flag of the United States. Using stars because design is believed to have been the result of an experience in the war directly related to his propriety.
A book in Hopkinson’s library at his house in Bordentown was taken by a Hessian soldier in December 1776, a dark year of the battle. The soldier, an I. Ewald, created on the inside cover that he had seen the writer near Philadelphia as well as that he, Ewald, had actually taken the publication from a fine country seat near Philadelphia. The soldier had composed above as well as below Hopkinson’s bookplate, which had 3 six pointed stars as well as his household adage, “Semper Paratus”, or “Always Ready”.
In a letter to the Board of Admiralty in 1780 Hopkinson insisted that he had actually designed “the flag of the United States of America” as well as a number of ornaments, devices, and checks showing up on bills of exchange, ship papers, the seals of the boards of Admiralty and Treasury, as well as the Great Seal of the United States. Hopkinson had obtained absolutely nothing for this work, and now he submitted a bill as well as asked “whether a Quarter Cask of the public wine” would not be a practical and also correct incentive for his labors.
However, nobody can be so certain who created the American flag. The American flag is the spiritual symbol of the nation. It symbolizes the peoples’ birthright, their heritage of freedom acquired with blood and also sorrow. The title deed of liberty, which is the nation’s to appreciate and also hold in trust for posterity. Timeless caution is the cost of liberty. As you see the flag silhouetted in front of the calm skies of the country, you are reminded that the American flag represents exactly what you are – no more, no less.
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As quoted from the Star Spangled Banner:
O say can you see, by the dawn’s early light,
What so proudly we hailed at the twilight’s last gleaming,
Whose broad stripes and bright stars through the perilous fight,
O’er the ramparts we watched, were so gallantly streaming?
And the rockets’ red glare, the bombs bursting in air,
Gave proof through the night that our flag was still there;
O say does that star-spangled banner yet wave
O’er the land of the free and the home of the brave?
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