The background of the United States is large and also complicated, but can be broken down into moments and periods that split, linked, and changed the United States into the country it is now. The American flag did not look like it does currently. Besides that, it underwent a great deal of modifications as well as alterations.
The American Revolutionary War
Enter the American Revolution. Often described as the American War of Independence, or the Revolutionary War, it was a conflict which lasted from 1775-1783 and also enabled the initial 13 colonies to stay independent from Great Britain. Starting in Great Britain in the late 1790s, the Industrial Revolution at some point made its path to the United States and also changed the focus of the nation’s economy and the method it produces products.
These tensions occurred from growing stress between locals of Great Britain’s 13 North American colonies as well as the early american government (which represented the British crown). Efforts by the British federal government to raise earnings by collectin tax from the colonies (notably the Stamp Act of 1765, the Townshend Tariffs of 1767 and also the Tea Act of 1773) met with violent objection among lots of colonists, who resented their lack of representation in Parliament and demanded the very same legal rights as various other British subjects.
George Washington was made its commander-in-chief. Congress hoped they can compel the British to work out however George III refused to compromise. Rather, in August 1775 he proclaimed that all the American colonies were in a state of disobedience.
By June 1776, with the Revolutionary War in progress, a growing majority of the colonists had actually come to favor self-reliance from Britain. That same year Richard Henry Lee of the Virginia Assembly provided Congress with resolutions stating the independence of the colonies, asking for a confederation and also shared the need to locate international allies for a battle against Britain. On July 4th, the Continental Congress elected to take on the Declaration of Independence, composed by a five-man committee consisting of Franklin as well as John Adams but written primarily by Jefferson. By the fall of 1781, the American army had begun to compel the opponent to retreat to Virginia’s Yorktown peninsula, near where the York River clears right into Chesapeake Bay. Supported by a French army commanded by General Jean Baptiste de Rochambeau, Washington moved against Yorktown with an overall of around 14,000 soldiers, while a fleet of 36 French warships offshore avoided British reinforcement or escape. Trapped and also subdued, the adversary was forced to surrender their entire army. Stating ailments, the British general sent his deputy, Charles O’Hara, to surrender; after O’Hara came close to Rochambeau to surrender his sword (the Frenchman deferred to Washington), Washington gave the nod to his own deputy, Benjamin Lincoln, that approved it. After French aid aided the Continental Army force the British abandonment at Yorktown, Virginia, in 1781, the Americans had actually successfully won their independence, though combatting would certainly not officially end until 1783.
The motion for American freedom successfully won at Yorktown, contemporary observers did not see that as the decisive victory. British as well as American arbitrators in Paris signed preliminary peace terms in Paris late that November, and on September 3, 1783, Great Britain formally acknowledged the freedom of the United States in the Treaty of Paris.
How the American Flag happened
The American flag was developed to represent the brand-new union of the thirteen initial states: it would certainly have thirteen stripes, alternating red and also white, and also thirteen stars, white on a blue area. Among the initial flags had the stars laid out in a circle, based on the concept that all colonies were equal. The thirteen stripes, resting side by side, represented the battle for independence; red represented valiance, white signified purity as well as blue represented loyalty.
In 1818, after a couple of design changes, the United States Congress made a decision to keep the flag’s original thirteen stripes as well as include brand-new stars to show each brand-new state that entered the union.
While there is no question that the real Betsy Ross was worthy of interest in her own right, it is the tale of Betsy stitching the first stars and stripes that has made her a remarkable historical figure. The Betsy Ross story was brought to spotlight in 1870 by her grand son, William Canby, in a speech he made to the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. Canby as well as various other participants of Betsy’s family authorized vouched testimonies mentioning that they heard the tale of the production of the first flag from Betsy’s own mouth.
According to the narrative history, in 1776, 3 men – George Washington, Robert Morris, and George Ross, saw Betsy Ross in her furniture shop. She escorted them to her parlor, where they can have a private meeting. Here, Washington took a folded up paper from his inside jacket pocket. On it, was a sketch of a flag with thirteen red and white stripes and thirteen six-pointed stars.
Washington asked if Betsy could make a flag from the style. Betsy responded: “I don’t know, yet I will attempt.” This line was made use of in the sworn declarations of several of Betsy’s family participants, recommending that it is a direct quote from Betsy. As the story goes, Betsy recommended altering the stars to five points rather compared to 6.
However, some chroniclers believe that it was Francis Hopkisnon who brought to life the idea of the Stars and Stripes. Francis Hopkinson was a prominent patriot, a legal representative, a Congressman from New Jersey, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, poet, artist, and also distinguished civil servant.
He was selected to the Continental Navy Board on November 6,1776. It was while working on the Continental Navy Board that he transformed his focus on creating the flag of the United States. Using stars because design is thought to have been the result of an experience in the war straightly related to his propriety.
A book in Hopkinson’s library at his residence in Bordentown was taken by a Hessian soldier in December 1776, a dark year of the war. The soldier, one I. Ewald, wrote on the within cover that he had seen the writer near Philadelphia as well as that he, Ewald, had actually taken the publication from a great nation seat near Philadelphia. The soldier had actually composed above and also listed below Hopkinson’s bookplate, which had 3 6 pointed stars and also his family motto, “Semper Paratus”, or “Always Ready”.
In a letter to the Board of Admiralty in 1780 Hopkinson asserted that he had actually designed “the flag of the United States of America” in addition to several ornaments, devices, and checks appearing on bills of exchange, ship documents, the seals of the boards of Admiralty and Treasury, and also the Great Seal of the United States. Hopkinson had actually received absolutely nothing for this work, and now he submitted a bill and asked “whether a Quarter Cask of the public wine” would not be a practical and also proper incentive for his labors.
Even so, nobody could be so sure who produced the American flag. The American flag is the spiritual emblem of the country. As you see the flag silhouetted against the calm skies of the country, you are reminded that the American flag stands for what you are – no more, no much less.
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As taken from the Star Spangled Banner:
O say can you see, by the dawn’s early light,
What so proudly we hailed at the twilight’s last gleaming,
Whose broad stripes and bright stars through the perilous fight,
O’er the ramparts we watched, were so gallantly streaming?
And the rockets’ red glare, the bombs bursting in air,
Gave proof through the night that our flag was still there;
O say does that star-spangled banner yet wave
O’er the land of the free and the home of the brave?
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