The history of the United States is substantial as well as complex, however can be broken down into milestones as well as periods that separated, linked, and also transformed the United States into the country it is today. The American flag did not look like it does currently. Besides that, it underwent a great deal of adjustments as well as alterations.
The American Revolutionary War
Enter the American Revolution. In some cases described as the American War of Independence, or the Revolutionary War, it was a conflict which lasted from 1775-1783 and enabled the initial 13 colonies to stay independent from Great Britain. Starting in Great Britain in the late 1790s, the Industrial Revolution eventually made its path to the United States as well as altered the emphasis of the nation’s economy and also the means it makes items.
For greater than 10 years before the outbreak of the revolution in 1775, tensions had actually been developing between colonists and the British authorities. These tensions emerged from expanding tensions in between citizens of Great Britain’s 13 North American colonies as well as the early american government (which stood for the British crown). Efforts by the British government to elevate profits by collecting tax from the colonies (especially the Stamp Act of 1765, the Townshend Tariffs of 1767 and the Tea Act of 1773) met violent protest amongst several colonists, who disliked their lack of representation in Parliament as well as demanded the same rights as various other British citizens. Colonial resistance caused violence in 1770, when British soldiers opened fire on a crowd of colonists, eliminating five people in what was called the Boston Massacre. After December 1773, when a band of Bostonians impersonated Mohawk Indians boarded British ships then dumped 342 chests of tea into Boston Harbor, an outraged Parliament passed a series of steps (referred to as the Intolerable, or Coercive Acts) designed to reassert imperial authority in Massachusetts.
George Washington was made its leader. Congress hoped they could compel the British to work out but George III rejected to negotiate. Instead, in August 1775 he proclaimed that all the American colonies were in a state of disobedience.
By the fall of 1781, the American army had actually managed to compel the enemy to withdraw to Virginia’s Yorktown peninsula, near where the York River empties right into Chesapeake Bay. Claiming illness, the British general sent his deputy, Charles O’Hara, to surrender; after O’Hara approached Rochambeau to surrender his sword (the Frenchman deferred to Washington), Washington offered the nod to his very own replacement, Benjamin Lincoln, that accepted it. After French assistance helped the Continental Army compel the British surrender at Yorktown, Virginia, in 1781, the Americans had successfully won their freedom, though fighting would certainly not officially end til 1783.
Though the motion for American freedom efficiently won at Yorktown, modern observers did not see that as the crucial success yet. British armies continued to be stationed around Charleston, and also the effective major military still resided in New York. The British removal of their troops from Charleston as well as Savannah in late 1782 lastly pointed to the end of the dispute. British and American mediators in Paris authorized preliminary peace terms in Paris late that November, and also on September 3, 1783, Great Britain formally acknowledged the freedom of the United States in the Treaty of Paris. At the same time, Britain signed separate peace treaties with France and Spain (which had entered the conflict in 1779), bringing the American Revolution to a close after 8 long years.
Just how the American Flag happened
The American flag was designed to represent the new union of the thirteen original states: it would certainly have thirteen stripes, alternate red and white, and thirteen stars, white on a blue field. Among the very first flags had the stars organized in a circle, based on the idea that all colonies were equal. The thirteen stripes, laid out side-by-side, represented the struggle for independence; red represented valiance, white signified pureness as well as blue stood for commitment.
In 1818, after a couple of design changes, the United States Congress chose to retain the flag’s initial thirteen stripes as well as include brand-new stars to show each brand-new state that joined the union.
While there is no doubt that the actual Betsy Ross was worthy of interest in her own right, it is the legend of Betsy stitching the initial stars and stripes that has made her an unforgettable historic figure. The Betsy Ross story was offered public attention in 1870 by her grandson, William Canby, in a speech he made to the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. Canby and various other members of Betsy’s family members authorized vouched affidavits stating that they listened to the story of the production of the first flag from Betsy’s own mouth.
According to the oral background, in 1776, three men – George Washington, Robert Morris, and also George Ross, checked out Betsy Ross in her upholstery store. On a paper Washington revealed, was an illustration of a flag with thirteen red and also white stripes as well as thirteen 6-pointed stars.
Washington asked if Betsy might make a flag from the design. Betsy reacted: “I don’t know, however I will try.” This line was utilized in the sworn declarations of many of Betsy’s relatives, suggesting that it is a direct quote from Betsy. As the story goes, Betsy recommended altering the stars to five points rather than 6. She showed them the best ways to do it with just one snip of her scissors. They all accepted to alter the design to have stars with 5 points.
Some people think that it was Francis Hopkisnon who offered birth to the idea of the Stars and Stripes. Francis Hopkinson was a prominent patriot, a legal representative, a Congressman from New Jersey, an endorser of the Declaration of Independence, poet, musician, as well as identified civil servant.
He was assigned to the Continental Navy Board on November 6,1776. It was while serving on the Continental Navy Board that he turned his attention to designing the flag of the United States. Using stars in that design is thought to have actually been the outcome of an experience in the battle directly related to his propriety.
A publication in Hopkinson’s collection at his home in Bordentown was taken by a Hessian soldier in December 1776, a dark year of the battle. The book, Discourses on Public Occasions in America (London, 1762) by William Smith, D.D., had been a present to him by the author. The soldier, an I. Ewald, wrote on the inside cover that he had actually seen the author near Philadelphia which he, Ewald, had taken the book from a great country seat near Philadelphia. The book was ultimately offered to a person in Philadelphia who returned it to Hopkinson. The soldier had actually created over and below Hopkinson’s bookplate, which had three 6 pointed stars and his household slogan, “Semper Paratus”, or “Always Ready”. The secure return of the book may well have symbolized to Hopkinson the rebirth of the Americans’ hope.
In a letter to the Board of Admiralty in 1780 Hopkinson asserted that he had actually developed “the flag of the United States of America” along with numerous ornaments, devices, and checks appearing on bills of exchange, ship documents, the seals of the boards of Admiralty and Treasury, as well as the Great Seal of the United States. Hopkinson had received absolutely nothing for this job, and also currently he submitted a bill as well as asked “whether a Quarter Cask of the public wine” would certainly not be a sensible as well as proper reward for his labors.
Even so, nobody can be so certain that developed the American flag. The American flag is the spiritual symbol of the country. As you see the flag silhouetted against the tranquil skies of the nation, you are reminded that the American flag stands for what you are – no more, no much less.
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As taken from the Star Spangled Banner:
O say can you see, by the dawn’s early light,
What so proudly we hailed at the twilight’s last gleaming,
Whose broad stripes and bright stars through the perilous fight,
O’er the ramparts we watched, were so gallantly streaming?
And the rockets’ red glare, the bombs bursting in air,
Gave proof through the night that our flag was still there;
O say does that star-spangled banner yet wave
O’er the land of the free and the home of the brave?
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