The background of the United States is vast as well as complicated, yet can be broken down into moments and periods that divided, unified, and altered the United States into the nation it is today. The American flag did not resemble like it does now. Besides that, it underwent a great deal of modifications as well as alterations.
The American Revolutionary War
Enter the American Revolution. Sometimes described as the American War of Independence, or the Revolutionary War, it was a conflict which lasted from 1775-1783 as well as enabled the original 13 colonies to continue to be independent from Great Britain. Beginning in Great Britain in the late 1790s, the Industrial Revolution at some point made its path to the United States and also changed the emphasis of the nation’s economy and the way it produces products.
These problems developed from growing tensions between locals of Great Britain’s 13 North American colonies as well as the colonial government (which stood for the British crown). Efforts by the British federal government to increase profits by taxing the colonies (especially the Stamp Act of 1765, the Townshend Tariffs of 1767 and the Tea Act of 1773) met with violent objection among several colonists, that resented their absence of representation in Parliament as well as demanded the very same legal rights as various other British people.
George Washington was made its commander in chief. Congress wished they could compel the British to discuss but George III declined to negotiate. Rather, in August 1775 he proclaimed that all the American colonies were in a state of disobedience.
By June 1776, with the Revolutionary War in progress, an expanding bulk of the colonists had actually pertained to favor independence from Britain. That exact same year Richard Henry Lee of the Virginia Assembly provided Congress with resolutions proclaiming the freedom of the colonies, asking for a confederation and also revealed the should locate foreign allies for a war against Britain. On July 4th, the Continental Congress elected to embrace the Declaration of Independence, composed by a five-man committee including Franklin as well as John Adams but created generally by Jefferson. By the autumn of 1781, the American forces had managed to compel the enemy to withdraw to Virginia’s Yorktown peninsula, near where the York River clears right into Chesapeake Bay. Supported by a French army led by General Jean Baptiste de Rochambeau, Washington moved against Yorktown with a total amount of around 14,000 soldiers, while a fleet of 36 French battleships offshore avoided British support or escape. Trapped and also overpowered, the enemy was compelled to surrender their entire army. Claiming health problems, the British general sent his replacement, Charles O’Hara, to surrender; after O’Hara came close to Rochambeau to surrender his sword (the Frenchman deferred to Washington), Washington gave the nod to his very own replacement, Benjamin Lincoln, that approved it. After French support assisted the Continental Army force the British abandonment at Yorktown, Virginia, in 1781, the Americans had successfully won their independence, though combatting would not officially end til 1783.
The movement for American freedom effectively won at Yorktown, modern historians did not see that as the definitive success. British as well as American negotiators in Paris authorized initial peace terms in Paris late that November, as well as on September 3, 1783, Great Britain officially acknowledged the freedom of the United States in the Treaty of Paris.
How the American Flag came to be
The American flag was created to represent the new union of the thirteen initial states: it would have thirteen stripes, alternating red as well as white, and thirteen stars, white on a blue area. One of the first flags had the stars organized in a circle, based upon the suggestion that all colonies were equal. The thirteen stripes, laid out side-by-side, stood for the struggle for freedom; red represented valiance, white signified pureness as well as blue represented loyalty.
In 1818, after a few layout adjustments, the United States Congress decided to retain the flag’s original thirteen stripes and include new stars to reflect each brand-new state that got in the union.
While there is no doubt that the actual Betsy Ross was worthy of interest in her very own right, it is the legend of Betsy stitching the initial stars and stripes that has made her a memorable historic figure. The Betsy Ross story was brought to spotlight in 1870 by her grandson, William Canby, in a speech he made to the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. Canby as well as various other participants of Betsy’s family authorized vouched testimonies mentioning that they listened to the tale of the production of the very first flag from Betsy’s own mouth.
According to the oral background, in 1776, 3 men – George Washington, Robert Morris, and George Ross, visited Betsy Ross in her upholstery store. On a piece of paper Washington revealed, was a sketch of a flag with thirteen red as well as white stripes as well as thirteen 6-pointed stars.
Washington asked if Betsy can make a flag from the design. Betsy responded: “I do not know, but I will certainly attempt.” This line was made use of in the vouched declarations of much of Betsy’s relatives, recommending that it is a straight quote from Betsy. As the story goes, Betsy suggested altering the stars to five points instead of six. She demonstrated to them how to do it with simply one snip of her scissors. They all accepted to alter the design to have stars with 5 points.
Some historians believe that it was Francis Hopkisnon that gave birth to the idea of the Stars and Stripes. Francis Hopkinson was a prominent patriot, a lawyer, a Congressman from New Jersey, an endorser of the Declaration of Independence, poet, musician, as well as distinguished civil servant.
He was assigned to the Continental Navy Board on November 6,1776. It was while working on the Continental Navy Board that he turned his focus on making the flag of the United States. The use of stars in that style is thought to have been the outcome of an experience in the war directly related to his propriety.
A publication in Hopkinson’s collection at his home in Bordentown was taken by a Hessian soldier in December 1776, a dark year of the war. The book, Discourses on Public Occasions in America (London, 1762) by William Smith, D.D., had actually been a gift to him by the author. The soldier, one I. Ewald, wrote on the inside cover that he had actually seen the author near Philadelphia and that he, Ewald, had actually taken the book from a fine nation seat near Philadelphia. The book was subsequently provided to someone in Philadelphia that returned it to Hopkinson. The soldier had created over and also below Hopkinson’s bookplate, which had 3 6 pointed stars as well as his family adage, “Semper Paratus”, or “Always Ready”. The secure return of the book could well have actually signified to Hopkinson the resurgence of the Americans’ wish.
In a letter to the Board of Admiralty in 1780 Hopkinson insisted that he had actually made “the flag of the United States of America” as well as a number of ornaments, devices, and checks appearing on bills of exchange, ship documents, the seals of the boards of Admiralty and also Treasury, and the Great Seal of the United States. Hopkinson had actually received nothing for this job, as well as now he sent a bill and asked “whether a Quarter Cask of the public wine” would not be a sensible and also appropriate incentive for his labors.
Even so, no one can be so certain that created the American flag. The American flag is the spiritual emblem of the country. It represents the citizens’ birthright, their heritage of liberty bought with blood and sorrow. The title deed of liberty, which is the nation’s to enjoy and also keep in trust for posterity. Timeless caution is the price of liberty. As you see the flag silhouetted in front of the relaxed skies of the nation, you are reminded that the American flag means what you are – no more, no much less.
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As taken from the Star Spangled Banner:
O say can you see, by the dawn’s early light,
What so proudly we hailed at the twilight’s last gleaming,
Whose broad stripes and bright stars through the perilous fight,
O’er the ramparts we watched, were so gallantly streaming?
And the rockets’ red glare, the bombs bursting in air,
Gave proof through the night that our flag was still there;
O say does that star-spangled banner yet wave
O’er the land of the free and the home of the brave?
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