The background of the United States is large and complicated, but can be broken down into milestones and periods that separated, linked, and also changed the United States right into the country it is now. The American flag did not appear like it does now. Other than that, it went through a lot of changes and also alterations.
The American Revolutionary War
Enter the American Revolution. Occasionally described as the American War of Independence, or the Revolutionary War, it was a conflict which lasted from 1775-1783 and allowed the original 13 colonies to stay independent from Great Britain. Starting in Great Britain in the late 1790s, the Industrial Revolution at some point made its path to the United States and transformed the emphasis of the country’s economic climate as well as the means it makes products.
For more than 10 years before the episode of the revolution in 1775, tensions had been building between colonists as well as the British authorities. These stress emerged from growing tensions between residents of Great Britain’s 13 North American colonies as well as the early american government (which stood for the British crown). Attempts by the British government to elevate profits by collecting tax from the colonies (significantly the Stamp Act of 1765, the Townshend Tariffs of 1767 and the Tea Act of 1773) met violent demonstration among lots of colonists, who resented their absence of depiction in Parliament and also required the exact same legal rights as other British subjects. Colonial resistance caused violence in 1770, when British soldiers opened fire on a mob of colonists, eliminating 5 men in what was called the Boston Massacre. After December 1773, when a band of Bostonians dressed as Mohawk Indians boarded British ships and dumped 342 chests of tea right into Boston Harbor, an outraged Parliament passed a collection of steps (referred to as the Intolerable, or Coercive Acts) developed to reassert imperial authority in Massachusetts.
George Washington was made its commander-in-chief. Congress hoped they might require the British to work out but George III declined to compromise. Instead, in August 1775 he stated that all the American colonies were in a state of rebellion.
By June 1776, with the Revolutionary War in progress, a growing majority of the colonists had actually come to favor freedom from Britain. That exact same year Richard Henry Lee of the Virginia Assembly presented Congress with resolutions declaring the independence of the colonies, calling for a confederation as well as revealed the need to find international allies for a battle against Britain. On July 4th, the Continental Congress elected to take on the Declaration of Independence, drafted by a five-man committee including Franklin as well as John Adams however composed mostly by Jefferson. By the autumn of 1781, the American forces had managed to require the adversary to retreat to Virginia’s Yorktown peninsula, near where the York River clears into Chesapeake Bay. Backed up by a French army commanded by General Jean Baptiste de Rochambeau, Washington moved against Yorktown with a total of around 14,000 soldiers, while a fleet of 36 French warships offshore prevented British support or escape. Trapped and also overpowered, the opponent was forced to surrender their whole military. Stating illness, the British general sent his deputy, Charles O’Hara, to give up; after O’Hara came close to Rochambeau to surrender his sword (the Frenchman deferred to Washington), Washington gave the nod to his own replacement, Benjamin Lincoln, that accepted it. After French help assisted the Continental Army require the British abandonment at Yorktown, Virginia, in 1781, the Americans had successfully won their freedom, though combatting would certainly not officially finish up until 1783.
The motion for American independence successfully won at Yorktown, modern observers did not see that as the decisive victory. British forces remained stationed around Charleston, as well as the powerful major military still stayed in New York. The British removal of their troops from Charleston as well as Savannah in late 1782 finally pointed to the end of the dispute. British and also American negotiators in Paris authorized preliminary peace terms in Paris late that November, and also on September 3, 1783, Great Britain formally identified the independence of the United States in the Treaty of Paris. At the same time, Britain signed separate peace treaties with France and Spain (which had gotten in the conflict in 1779), bringing the American Revolution to a close after eight long years.
How the American Flag happened
The American flag was developed to stand for the new union of the thirteen original states: it would have thirteen stripes, alternating red and also white, and also thirteen stars, white on a blue field. One of the very first flags had actually the stars laid out in a circle, based upon the concept that colonies were equal. The thirteen stripes, resting side by side, stood for the battle for independence; red represented valiance, white signified pureness and also blue represented loyalty.
In 1818, after a few design adjustments, the United States Congress chose to retain the flag’s original thirteen stripes and also include brand-new stars to reflect each brand-new state that got in the union.
While there is no question that the genuine Betsy Ross was worthy of interest in her very own right, it is the legend of Betsy stitching the very first stars and stripes that has made her a memorable historical figure. The Betsy Ross tale was brought to public attention in 1870 by her grandson, William Canby, in a speech he made to the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. Canby and various other participants of Betsy’s household authorized vouched testimonies stating that they listened to the story of the production of the very first flag from Betsy’s very own mouth.
According to the oral history, in 1776, 3 men – George Washington, Robert Morris, and also George Ross, went to Betsy Ross in her upholstery shop. She accompanied them to her parlor, where they can have a private meeting. Right here, Washington took a folded paper from his inside coat pocket. On it, was an illustration of a flag with thirteen red and white stripes and thirteen six-pointed stars.
Washington asked if Betsy can make a flag from the layout. Betsy reacted: “I do not know, yet I will attempt.” This line was used in the sworn declarations of most of Betsy’s members of the family, suggesting that it is a direct quote from Betsy. As the tale goes, Betsy suggested transforming the stars to five points as opposed to six. She demonstrated to them how to do it with simply one snip of her scissors. They all agreed to change the design to have stars with 5 points.
Some chroniclers think that it was Francis Hopkisnon who offered birth to the idea of the Stars and Stripes. Francis Hopkinson was a prominent patriot, a lawyer, a Congressman from New Jersey, an endorser of the Declaration of Independence, poet, artist, as well as distinguished civil servant.
He was appointed to the Continental Navy Board on November 6,1776. It was while serving on the Continental Navy Board that he transformed his attention to developing the flag of the United States. Making use of stars in that style is believed to have been the result of an experience in the war directly pertaining to his propriety.
A book in Hopkinson’s collection at his home in Bordentown was taken by a Hessian soldier in December 1776, a dark year of the battle. The soldier, one I. Ewald, created on the within cover that he had actually seen the author near Philadelphia and that he, Ewald, had taken the publication from a fine country seat near Philadelphia. The soldier had actually written above and also listed below Hopkinson’s bookplate, which had three six pointed stars and his family adage, “Semper Paratus”, or “Always Ready”.
In a letter to the Board of Admiralty in 1780 Hopkinson insisted that he had actually created “the flag of the United States of America” in addition to numerous ornaments, devices, and checks appearing on bills of exchange, ship documents, the seals of the boards of Admiralty and Treasury, and the Great Seal of the United States. Hopkinson had obtained nothing for this job, as well as currently he submitted a bill and also asked “whether a Quarter Cask of the public wine” would not be a sensible as well as proper incentive for his labors.
Also so, no one can be so sure that created the American flag. The American flag is the sacred symbol of the nation. As you see the flag silhouetted against the peaceful skies of the country, you are reminded that the American flag stands for exactly what you are – no more, no much less.
Top American Flags near state of West Virginia
As taken from the Star Spangled Banner:
O say can you see, by the dawn’s early light,
What so proudly we hailed at the twilight’s last gleaming,
Whose broad stripes and bright stars through the perilous fight,
O’er the ramparts we watched, were so gallantly streaming?
And the rockets’ red glare, the bombs bursting in air,
Gave proof through the night that our flag was still there;
O say does that star-spangled banner yet wave
O’er the land of the free and the home of the brave?
ZIP codes in Spurlockville we serve: 25565