The history of the United States is substantial as well as intricate, however can be broken down into milestones and also time periods that separated, combined, as well as transformed the United States into the country it is now. The American flag really did not appear like it does currently. Besides that, it undertook a great deal of modifications and also alterations.
The American Revolutionary War
Enter the American Revolution. Occasionally described as the American War of Independence, or the Revolutionary War, it was a war which lasted from 1775-1783 and also permitted the original 13 colonies to stay independent from Great Britain. Starting in Great Britain in the late 1790s, the Industrial Revolution ultimately made its way to the United States and also changed the focus of the nation’s economic climate and also the way it makes products.
These conflicts developed from expanding tensions between residents of Great Britain’s 13 North American colonies as well as the colonial government (which stood for the British crown). Efforts by the British government to elevate profits by collectin tax from the colonies (especially the Stamp Act of 1765, the Townshend Tariffs of 1767 as well as the Tea Act of 1773) met with heated protest among numerous colonists, that disliked their absence of depiction in Parliament as well as required the same civil liberties as various other British subjects.
The Continental Congress convened in May 1775 as well as consented to build an army. George Washington was made its commander in chief. Congress wished they might force the British to discuss yet George III refused to compromise. Rather, in August 1775 he stated that all the American colonies were in a state of disobedience. At the same time, rule by royal governor broke down and individuals required government without royal interference. In May 1776 Congress determined that royal government should cease as well as government needs to be ‘under the authority of individuals’. Ultimately the colonies drew up state constitutions to replace their charters.
By June 1776, with the Revolutionary War in full swing, an expanding bulk of the colonists had come to favor independence from Britain. That same year Richard Henry Lee of the Virginia Assembly provided Congress with resolutions proclaiming the freedom of the colonies, asking for a confederation as well as expressed the have to locate foreign allies for a battle versus Britain. On July 4th, the Continental Congress voted to adopt the Declaration of Independence, prepared by a five-man board consisting of Franklin and John Adams but composed mostly by Jefferson. By the autumn of 1781, the American army had actually managed to compel the adversary to retreat to Virginia’s Yorktown peninsula, near where the York River empties right into Chesapeake Bay. Supported by a French army led by General Jean Baptiste de Rochambeau, Washington moved against Yorktown with a total of around 14,000 soldiers, while a fleet of 36 French warships offshore avoided British support or evacuation. Entrapped as well as subdued, the opponent was forced to surrender their entire army. Claiming illness, the British general sent his replacement, Charles O’Hara, to surrender; after O’Hara came close to Rochambeau to surrender his sword (the Frenchman deferred to Washington), Washington gave the nod to his own deputy, Benjamin Lincoln, that accepted it. After French support assisted the Continental Army force the British surrender at Yorktown, Virginia, in 1781, the Americans had efficiently won their independence, though the battle would not officially end until 1783.
The movement for American independence effectively won at Yorktown, modern observers did not see that as the definitive triumph. British and American mediators in Paris signed initial peace terms in Paris late that November, and also on September 3, 1783, Great Britain formally recognized the independence of the United States in the Treaty of Paris.
Exactly how the American Flag happened
The American flag was designed to represent the brand-new union of the thirteen initial states: it would have thirteen stripes, alternate red as well as white, as well as thirteen stars, white on a blue field. One of the very first flags had actually the stars laid out in a circle, based upon the concept that all colonies were equal. The thirteen stripes, laid out side by side, stood for the struggle for independence; red stood for valiance, white signified purity and blue stood for loyalty.
In 1818, after a few design changes, the United States Congress made a decision to retain the flag’s original thirteen stripes and also include brand-new stars to show each brand-new state that got in the union.
While there is no doubt that the real Betsy Ross deserved interest in her own right, it is the tale of Betsy sewing the initial stars and stripes that has made her a memorable historical number. The Betsy Ross story was brought to public attention in 1870 by her grand son, William Canby, in a speech he made to the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. Canby and also various other participants of Betsy’s household authorized sworn affidavits mentioning that they listened to the story of the production of the initial flag from Betsy’s own mouth.
Based on the oral history, in 1776, 3 men – George Washington, Robert Morris, and also George Ross, checked out Betsy Ross in her upholstery shop. She accompanied them to her parlor, where they can have a private meeting. Right here, Washington took a folded piece of paper from his inside coat pocket. On it, was an illustration of a flag with thirteen red and also white stripes and thirteen six-pointed stars.
Washington asked if Betsy could make a flag from the layout. Betsy responded: “I don’t know, however I will certainly try.” This line was made use of in the vouched statements of many of Betsy’s household members, recommending that it is a direct quote from Betsy. As the story goes, Betsy suggested changing the stars to 5 points rather compared to six.
Some people believe that it was Francis Hopkisnon that provided birth to the concept of the Stars and Stripes. Francis Hopkinson was a prominent patriot, a legal representative, a Congressman from New Jersey, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, poet, artist, and also distinguished civil servant.
He was assigned to the Continental Navy Board on November 6,1776. It was while working on the Continental Navy Board that he transformed his focus on making the flag of the United States. Making use of stars because style is thought to have been the outcome of an experience in the war straightly pertaining to his propriety.
A book in Hopkinson’s library at his home in Bordentown was taken by a Hessian soldier in December 1776, a dark year of the battle. The soldier, one I. Ewald, wrote on the inside cover that he had actually seen the writer near Philadelphia and that he, Ewald, had taken the book from a fine country seat near Philadelphia. The soldier had composed over and also below Hopkinson’s bookplate, which had three six pointed stars and his household slogan, “Semper Paratus”, or “Always Ready”.
In a letter to the Board of Admiralty in 1780 Hopkinson insisted that he had designed “the flag of the United States of America” along with numerous ornaments, devices, and checks appearing on bills of exchange, ship documents, the seals of the boards of Admiralty and Treasury, and the Great Seal of the United States. Hopkinson had actually gotten absolutely nothing for this job, and also now he submitted a bill as well as asked “whether a Quarter Cask of the public wine” would not be a sensible and also proper incentive for his labors.
Even so, no one can be so certain who created the American flag. The American flag is the sacred emblem of the nation. As you see the flag silhouetted against the tranquil skies of the nation, you are reminded that the American flag stands for just what you are – no more, no less.
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As quoted from the Star Spangled Banner:
O say can you see, by the dawn’s early light,
What so proudly we hailed at the twilight’s last gleaming,
Whose broad stripes and bright stars through the perilous fight,
O’er the ramparts we watched, were so gallantly streaming?
And the rockets’ red glare, the bombs bursting in air,
Gave proof through the night that our flag was still there;
O say does that star-spangled banner yet wave
O’er the land of the free and the home of the brave?
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