The history of the United States is vast and also complex, yet can be broken down right into moments as well as periods that split, combined, as well as changed the United States right into the nation it is today. The American flag didn’t appear like it does now. Besides that, it undertook a lot of adjustments and alterations.
The American Revolutionary War
Enter the American Revolution. Sometimes referred to as the American War of Independence, or the Revolutionary War, it was a conflict which lasted from 1775-1783 and also permitted the initial 13 colonies to stay independent from Great Britain. Starting in Great Britain in the late 1790s, the Industrial Revolution at some point made its way to the United States and transformed the emphasis of the nation’s economic situation and also the means it makes products.
For more than 10 years before the break out of the revolution in 1775, tensions had been building between colonists as well as the British authorities. These tensions emerged from growing stress in between residents of Great Britain’s 13 North American colonies and the early american government (which represented the British crown). Efforts by the British government to increase profits by taxing the colonies (especially the Stamp Act of 1765, the Townshend Tariffs of 1767 and also the Tea Act of 1773) consulted with heated protest among many colonists, that disliked their lack of depiction in Parliament and also required the same civil liberties as various other British subjects. Colonial resistance resulted in violence in 1770, when British soldiers opened fire on a crowd of colonists, killing five men in what was known as the Boston Massacre. After December 1773, when a band of Bostonians dressed as Mohawk Indians boarded British ships and unloaded 342 chests of tea right into Boston Harbor, a furious Parliament passed a series of steps (known as the Intolerable, or Coercive Acts) developed to reassert royal authority in Massachusetts.
George Washington was made its leader. Congress hoped they can require the British to discuss but George III rejected to negotiate. Rather, in August 1775 he stated that all the American colonies were in a state of disobedience.
By June 1776, with the Revolutionary War in progress, a growing bulk of the colonists had pertained to favor independence from Britain. That very same year Richard Henry Lee of the Virginia Assembly offered Congress with resolutions declaring the freedom of the colonies, asking for a confederation and revealed the need to locate foreign allies for a war against Britain. On July 4th, the Continental Congress elected to adopt the Declaration of Independence, drafted by a five-man board including Franklin and also John Adams but created mostly by Jefferson. By the fall of 1781, the American forces had actually begun to require the enemy to retreat to Virginia’s Yorktown peninsula, near where the York River empties right into Chesapeake Bay. Supported by a French military commanded by General Jean Baptiste de Rochambeau, Washington moved against Yorktown with a total of around 14,000 soldiers, while a fleet of 36 French warships offshore prevented British reinforcement or evacuation. Caught and overpowered, the adversary was required to surrender their whole army. Claiming ailments, the British general sent his replacement, Charles O’Hara, to surrender; after O’Hara approached Rochambeau to surrender his sword (the Frenchman deferred to Washington), Washington gave the nod to his own deputy, Benjamin Lincoln, who accepted it. After French aid aided the Continental Army force the British surrender at Yorktown, Virginia, in 1781, the Americans had actually successfully won their independence, though the war would certainly not formally finish til 1783.
The movement for American independence properly triumphed at Yorktown, contemporary observers did not see that as the decisive victory. British as well as American arbitrators in Paris signed preliminary peace terms in Paris late that November, and on September 3, 1783, Great Britain officially acknowledged the freedom of the United States in the Treaty of Paris.
Just how the American Flag came to be
The American flag was made to represent the new union of the thirteen initial states: it would certainly have thirteen stripes, alternating red as well as white, as well as thirteen stars, white on a blue area. Among the very first flags had the stars set up in a circle, based on the idea that colonies were equal. The thirteen stripes, resting side-by-side, represented the struggle for independence; red represented valor, white signified pureness and blue stood for commitment.
In 1818, after a few layout changes, the United States Congress decided to preserve the flag’s original thirteen stripes and also add new stars to reflect each new state that got in the union.
While there is no doubt that the genuine Betsy Ross deserved interest in her own right, it is the legend of Betsy stitching the initial stars and stripes that has made her an unforgettable historic number. The Betsy Ross story was offered public attention in 1870 by her grand son, William Canby, in a speech he made to the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. Canby as well as various other participants of Betsy’s family members authorized sworn affidavits stating that they heard the tale of the making of the first flag from Betsy’s own mouth.
Based on the narrative history, in 1776, 3 men – George Washington, Robert Morris, and George Ross, saw Betsy Ross in her upholstery shop. She escorted them to her parlor, where they could have a private meeting. Right here, Washington pulled a folded piece of paper from his inside jacket pocket. On it, was a sketch of a flag with thirteen red and white stripes and thirteen six-pointed stars.
Washington asked if Betsy might make a flag from the design. Betsy reacted: “I do not know, yet I will certainly try.” This line was used in the vouched statements of a lot of Betsy’s family members, suggesting that it is a straight quote from Betsy. As the story goes, Betsy suggested changing the stars to five points instead of 6. She showed them how you can do it with just one snip of her scissors. They all agreed to change the layout to have stars with 5 points.
Some chroniclers believe that it was Francis Hopkisnon that offered birth to the concept of the Stars and Stripes. Francis Hopkinson was a popular patriot, a lawyer, a Congressman from New Jersey, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, poet, musician, and also identified civil servant.
He was assigned to the Continental Navy Board on November 6,1776. It was while serving on the Continental Navy Board that he turned his attention to designing the flag of the United States. Making use of stars because design is believed to have been the result of an experience in the war directly related to his propriety.
A publication in Hopkinson’s library at his home in Bordentown was taken by a Hessian soldier in December 1776, a dark year of the battle. The soldier, one I. Ewald, created on the inside cover that he had actually seen the author near Philadelphia and also that he, Ewald, had taken the book from a great country seat near Philadelphia. The soldier had actually written over as well as below Hopkinson’s bookplate, which had 3 six pointed stars and his household motto, “Semper Paratus”, or “Always Ready”.
In a letter to the Board of Admiralty in 1780 Hopkinson insisted that he had actually developed “the flag of the United States of America” in addition to several ornaments, devices, and checks showing up on bills of exchange, ship documents, the seals of the boards of Admiralty and also Treasury, as well as the Great Seal of the United States. Hopkinson had actually gotten absolutely nothing for this work, and currently he submitted a bill and also asked “whether a Quarter Cask of the public wine” would not be a practical and also proper reward for his labors.
Even so, no one could be so certain that created the American flag. The American flag is the sacred emblem of the country. As you see the flag silhouetted against the relaxed skies of the country, you are reminded that the American flag stands for just what you are – no more, no less.
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As quoted from the Star Spangled Banner:
O say can you see, by the dawn’s early light,
What so proudly we hailed at the twilight’s last gleaming,
Whose broad stripes and bright stars through the perilous fight,
O’er the ramparts we watched, were so gallantly streaming?
And the rockets’ red glare, the bombs bursting in air,
Gave proof through the night that our flag was still there;
O say does that star-spangled banner yet wave
O’er the land of the free and the home of the brave?
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