The history of the United States is vast and intricate, however can be broken down into milestones as well as time periods that split, combined, as well as transformed the United States right into the nation it is now. The American flag did not appear like it does currently. Aside from that, it underwent a lot of changes and alterations.
The American Revolutionary War
Enter the American Revolution. In some cases described as the American War of Independence, or the Revolutionary War, it was a dispute which lasted from 1775-1783 and also enabled the initial 13 colonies to stay independent from Great Britain. Beginning in Great Britain in the late 1790s, the Industrial Revolution eventually made its way to the United States and altered the emphasis of the nation’s economic situation as well as the method it makes products.
For greater than 10 years prior to the outbreak of the revolution in 1775, tensions had been building between colonists as well as the British authorities. These stress emerged from growing stress between citizens of Great Britain’s 13 North American colonies and the colonial government (which stood for the British crown). Efforts by the British government to elevate earnings by collecting tax from the colonies (notably the Stamp Act of 1765, the Townshend Tariffs of 1767 as well as the Tea Act of 1773) met heated objection among lots of colonists, who disliked their absence of representation in Parliament and demanded the same civil liberties as other British citizens. Colonial resistance brought about violence in 1770, when British soldiers opened fire on a mob of colonists, killing 5 men in exactly what was called the Boston Massacre. After December 1773, when a band of Bostonians dressed as Mohawk Indians boarded British ships and unloaded 342 containers of tea into Boston Harbor, a furious Parliament passed a collection of steps (known as the Intolerable, or Coercive Acts) created to reassert royal authority in Massachusetts.
George Washington was made its leader. Congress hoped they could require the British to bargain however George III refused to compromise. Rather, in August 1775 he declared that all the American colonies were in a state of rebellion.
By June 1776, with the Revolutionary War in progress, an expanding majority of the colonists had actually come to favor independence from Britain. That exact same year Richard Henry Lee of the Virginia Assembly offered Congress with resolutions declaring the independence of the colonies, requiring a confederation as well as shared the should discover foreign allies for a war versus Britain. On July 4th, the Continental Congress voted to adopt the Declaration of Independence, prepared by a five-man committee consisting of Franklin as well as John Adams however written generally by Jefferson. By the fall of 1781, the American forces had begun to compel the enemy to withdraw to Virginia’s Yorktown peninsula, near where the York River empties into Chesapeake Bay. Backed up by a French military commanded by General Jean Baptiste de Rochambeau, Washington moved against Yorktown with a total of around 14,000 soldiers, while a fleet of 36 French warships offshore prevented British reinforcement or escape. Caught and also overpowered, the adversary was required to surrender their whole military. Stating disease, the British general sent his deputy, Charles O’Hara, to surrender; after O’Hara approached Rochambeau to surrender his sword (the Frenchman deferred to Washington), Washington gave the nod to his own deputy, Benjamin Lincoln, who approved it. After French aid helped the Continental Army force the British surrender at Yorktown, Virginia, in 1781, the Americans had actually effectively won their freedom, though the war would certainly not officially end til 1783.
The motion for American independence successfully triumphed at Yorktown, modern observers did not see that as the definitive victory. British as well as American mediators in Paris authorized initial peace terms in Paris late that November, and on September 3, 1783, Great Britain formally recognized the independence of the United States in the Treaty of Paris.
Exactly how the American Flag came to be
The American flag was created to stand for the new union of the thirteen original states: it would certainly have thirteen stripes, alternating red as well as white, and thirteen stars, white on a blue field. One of the initial flags had actually the stars laid out in a circle, based upon the concept that colonies were equal. The thirteen stripes, resting side-by-side, represented the struggle for freedom; red represented valiance, white signified pureness as well as blue represented loyalty.
In 1818, after a few layout adjustments, the United States Congress decided to retain the flag’s initial thirteen stripes and add brand-new stars to reflect each brand-new state that entered the union.
While there is no question that the real Betsy Ross was worthy of interest in her very own right, it is the tale of Betsy stitching the first stars and stripes that has made her an unforgettable historic number. The Betsy Ross story was offered public attention in 1870 by her grandson, William Canby, in a speech he made to the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. Canby as well as other participants of Betsy’s family members authorized sworn testimonies mentioning that they listened to the story of the production of the first flag from Betsy’s very own mouth.
According to the oral background, in 1776, 3 men – George Washington, Robert Morris, and George Ross, checked out Betsy Ross in her upholstery store. On a piece of paper Washington revealed, was a sketch of a flag with thirteen red and also white stripes as well as thirteen 6-pointed stars.
Washington asked if Betsy might make a flag from the design. Betsy responded: “I don’t know, but I will certainly try.” This line was made use of in the sworn statements of several of Betsy’s household members, recommending that it is a straight quote from Betsy. As the tale goes, Betsy recommended changing the stars to 5 points instead compared to six.
Nevertheless, some historians believe that it was Francis Hopkisnon that gave birth to the concept of the Stars and Stripes. Francis Hopkinson was a preferred patriot, a lawyer, a Congressman from New Jersey, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, poet, artist, and also distinguished civil servant.
He was assigned to the Continental Navy Board on November 6,1776. It was while serving on the Continental Navy Board that he turned his attention to creating the flag of the United States. The use of stars because layout is thought to have been the outcome of an experience in the battle directly pertaining to his propriety.
A book in Hopkinson’s library at his home in Bordentown was taken by a Hessian soldier in December 1776, a dark year of the war. The book, Discourses on Public Occasions in America (London, 1762) by William Smith, D.D., had actually been a present to him by the writer. The soldier, an I. Ewald, created on the within cover that he had seen the writer near Philadelphia and that he, Ewald, had actually taken the book from a fine nation seat near Philadelphia. The book was subsequently provided to somebody in Philadelphia who returned it to Hopkinson. The soldier had actually composed over and also listed below Hopkinson’s bookplate, which had three six pointed stars as well as his household motto, “Semper Paratus”, or “Always Ready”. The secure return of the book may well have signified to Hopkinson the rebirth of the Americans’ wish.
In a letter to the Board of Admiralty in 1780 Hopkinson insisted that he had actually made “the flag of the United States of America” as well as a number of ornaments, devices, and checks appearing on bills of exchange, ship documents, the seals of the boards of Admiralty and Treasury, and also the Great Seal of the United States. Hopkinson had actually obtained absolutely nothing for this work, and now he sent a bill as well as asked “whether a Quarter Cask of the public wine” would certainly not be a practical and also proper reward for his labors.
Even so, no one can be so sure who produced the American flag. The American flag is the spiritual emblem of the country. As you see the flag silhouetted in front of the peaceful skies of the country, you are reminded that the American flag stands for just what you are – no more, no much less.
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As taken from the Star Spangled Banner:
O say can you see, by the dawn’s early light,
What so proudly we hailed at the twilight’s last gleaming,
Whose broad stripes and bright stars through the perilous fight,
O’er the ramparts we watched, were so gallantly streaming?
And the rockets’ red glare, the bombs bursting in air,
Gave proof through the night that our flag was still there;
O say does that star-spangled banner yet wave
O’er the land of the free and the home of the brave?
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