The history of the United States is vast and intricate, yet can be broken down into milestones as well as time periods that separated, unified, as well as altered the United States into the country it is today. The American flag did not look like it does now. Other than that, it underwent a great deal of adjustments as well as alterations.
The American Revolutionary War
Enter the American Revolution. Often referred to as the American War of Independence, or the Revolutionary War, it was a dispute which lasted from 1775-1783 as well as enabled the initial 13 colonies to stay independent from Great Britain. Starting in Great Britain in the late 1790s, the Industrial Revolution at some point made its path to the United States and transformed the emphasis of the country’s economy as well as the means it makes items.
For greater than 10 years before the break out of the revolution in 1775, conflict had actually been developing between colonists and the British authorities. These tensions developed from expanding stress in between locals of Great Britain’s 13 North American colonies and also the early american government (which stood for the British crown). Efforts by the British government to elevate earnings by collecting tax from the colonies (notably the Stamp Act of 1765, the Townshend Tariffs of 1767 and the Tea Act of 1773) met with heated protest amongst many colonists, that resented their absence of representation in Parliament and demanded the same civil liberties as other British citizens. Colonial resistance resulted in violence in 1770, when British soldiers opened fire on a mob of colonists, killing five men in just what was called the Boston Massacre. After December 1773, when a band of Bostonians impersonated Mohawk Indians boarded British ships and disposed 342 containers of tea into Boston Harbor, an annoyed Parliament passed a collection of measures (called the Intolerable, or Coercive Acts) designed to reassert royal authority in Massachusetts.
George Washington was made its commander in chief. Congress hoped they could compel the British to negotiate but George III rejected to compromise. Rather, in August 1775 he stated that all the American colonies were in a state of rebellion.
By June 1776, with the Revolutionary War in progress, a growing majority of the colonists had actually pertained to prefer self-reliance from Britain. That exact same year Richard Henry Lee of the Virginia Assembly presented Congress with resolutions proclaiming the self-reliance of the colonies, calling for a confederation and also expressed the need to discover international allies for a war against Britain. On July 4th, the Continental Congress elected to take on the Declaration of Independence, drafted by a five-man committee consisting of Franklin and also John Adams however created generally by Jefferson. By the autumn of 1781, the American army had managed to compel the enemy to retreat to Virginia’s Yorktown peninsula, near where the York River clears into Chesapeake Bay. Backed up by a French military led by General Jean Baptiste de Rochambeau, Washington moved against Yorktown with a total amount of around 14,000 soldiers, while a fleet of 36 French warships offshore avoided British support or evacuation. Entrapped as well as overpowered, the opponent was required to surrender their entire army. Stating disease, the British general sent his replacement, Charles O’Hara, to give up; after O’Hara approached Rochambeau to surrender his sword (the Frenchman deferred to Washington), Washington gave the nod to his very own replacement, Benjamin Lincoln, that accepted it. After French aid helped the Continental Army force the British abandonment at Yorktown, Virginia, in 1781, the Americans had efficiently won their independence, though the battle would not formally finish up until 1783.
The motion for American freedom successfully triumphed at Yorktown, modern observers did not see that as the decisive victory. British as well as American mediators in Paris signed preliminary peace terms in Paris late that November, as well as on September 3, 1783, Great Britain officially identified the freedom of the United States in the Treaty of Paris.
How the American Flag happened
The American flag was created to stand for the new union of the thirteen initial states: it would have thirteen stripes, alternate red as well as white, and also thirteen stars, white on a blue area. Among the initial flags had actually the stars laid out in a circle, based upon the suggestion that colonies were equal. The thirteen stripes, resting side by side, stood for the struggle for freedom; red meant valor, white signified purity and blue stood for commitment.
In 1818, after a couple of design changes, the United States Congress made a decision to retain the flag’s original thirteen stripes and also add new stars to show each new state that entered the union.
While there is no question that the genuine Betsy Ross was worthy of interest in her own right, it is the tale of Betsy sewing the first stars and stripes that has made her an extraordinary historic figure. The Betsy Ross story was brought to public attention in 1870 by her grandson, William Canby, in a speech he made to the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. Canby and also other members of Betsy’s household authorized sworn testimonies mentioning that they heard the story of the making of the first flag from Betsy’s very own mouth.
According to the narrative history, in 1776, 3 men – George Washington, Robert Morris, and George Ross, visited Betsy Ross in her furniture store. She escorted them to her parlor, where they can have a private meeting. Right here, Washington took a folded up paper from his inside coat pocket. On it, was a drawing of a flag with thirteen red and also white stripes and thirteen 6-pointed stars.
Washington asked if Betsy could make a flag from the design. Betsy reacted: “I do not know, but I will certainly try.” This line was made use of in the vouched declarations of a number of Betsy’s members of the family, suggesting that it is a straight quote from Betsy. As the story goes, Betsy recommended altering the stars to 5 points as opposed to 6. She showed them the best ways to do it with simply one snip of her scissors. They all accepted to change the style to have stars with 5 points.
Some chroniclers think that it was Francis Hopkisnon that offered birth to the concept of the Stars and Stripes. Francis Hopkinson was a prominent patriot, an attorney, a Congressman from New Jersey, an endorser of the Declaration of Independence, poet, artist, and also distinguished civil servant.
He was selected to the Continental Navy Board on November 6,1776. It was while working on the Continental Navy Board that he transformed his attention to making the flag of the United States. Using stars in that style is thought to have actually been the outcome of an experience in the war directly related to his propriety.
A publication in Hopkinson’s library at his home in Bordentown was taken by a Hessian soldier in December 1776, a dark year of the battle. The book, Discourses on Public Occasions in America (London, 1762) by William Smith, D.D., had been a gift to him by the author. The soldier, an I. Ewald, composed on the inside cover that he had actually seen the author near Philadelphia and that he, Ewald, had actually taken the book from a fine nation seat near Philadelphia. The book was subsequently offered to a person in Philadelphia that returned it to Hopkinson. The soldier had created over as well as below Hopkinson’s bookplate, which had three six pointed stars and also his family adage, “Semper Paratus”, or “Always Ready”. The safe return of the book may well have signified to Hopkinson the resurgence of the Americans’ hope.
In a letter to the Board of Admiralty in 1780 Hopkinson insisted that he had developed “the flag of the United States of America” in addition to numerous ornaments, devices, and checks appearing on bills of exchange, ship documents, the seals of the boards of Admiralty as well as Treasury, and the Great Seal of the United States. Hopkinson had actually obtained absolutely nothing for this work, and also currently he sent a bill as well as asked “whether a Quarter Cask of the public wine” would certainly not be a practical as well as correct reward for his labors.
Also so, no one could be so certain that created the American flag. The American flag is the sacred symbol of the nation. As you see the flag silhouetted against the tranquil skies of the country, you are reminded that the American flag stands for just what you are – no more, no much less.
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As taken from the Star Spangled Banner:
O say can you see, by the dawn’s early light,
What so proudly we hailed at the twilight’s last gleaming,
Whose broad stripes and bright stars through the perilous fight,
O’er the ramparts we watched, were so gallantly streaming?
And the rockets’ red glare, the bombs bursting in air,
Gave proof through the night that our flag was still there;
O say does that star-spangled banner yet wave
O’er the land of the free and the home of the brave?
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