The history of the United States is vast and also intricate, however can be broken down right into milestones and also time periods that divided, combined, as well as transformed the United States right into the nation it is today. The American flag really did not look like it does now. Other than that, it underwent a lot of modifications and also adjustments.
The American Revolutionary War
Enter the American Revolution. In some cases referred to as the American War of Independence, or the Revolutionary War, it was a conflict which lasted from 1775-1783 as well as permitted the initial 13 colonies to remain independent from Great Britain. Beginning in Great Britain in the late 1790s, the Industrial Revolution at some point made its way to the United States and changed the focus of the nation’s economic situation and also the means it makes items.
These conflicts emerged from growing tensions between residents of Great Britain’s 13 North American colonies and the colonial government (which stood for the British crown). Attempts by the British government to raise profits by taxing the colonies (notably the Stamp Act of 1765, the Townshend Tariffs of 1767 and the Tea Act of 1773) met with negative objection amongst numerous colonists, who resented their lack of representation in Parliament as well as demanded the exact same civil liberties as various other British people.
George Washington was made its commander in chief. Congress hoped they could compel the British to work out yet George III declined to compromise. Instead, in August 1775 he proclaimed that all the American colonies were in a state of disobedience.
By the autumn of 1781, the American army had actually begun to compel the enemy to retreat to Virginia’s Yorktown peninsula, near where the York River clears into Chesapeake Bay. Claiming illness, the British general sent his deputy, Charles O’Hara, to surrender; after O’Hara approached Rochambeau to surrender his sword (the Frenchman deferred to Washington), Washington gave the nod to his very own replacement, Benjamin Lincoln, that approved it. After French help aided the Continental Army require the British surrender at Yorktown, Virginia, in 1781, the Americans had actually successfully won their self-reliance, though fighting would certainly not officially finish til 1783.
The movement for American independence properly won at Yorktown, contemporary historians did not see that as the definitive victory. British and American negotiators in Paris authorized initial peace terms in Paris late that November, as well as on September 3, 1783, Great Britain formally identified the independence of the United States in the Treaty of Paris.
Just how the American Flag came to be
The American flag was designed to represent the brand-new union of the thirteen original states: it would certainly have thirteen stripes, alternating red and white, and also thirteen stars, white on a blue area. One of the very first flags had actually the stars laid out in a circle, based upon the idea that colonies were equal. The thirteen stripes, resting side-by-side, represented the battle for independence; red represented valiance, white signified pureness and also blue stood for commitment.
In 1818, after a few design adjustments, the United States Congress decided to maintain the flag’s initial thirteen stripes as well as include new stars to show each new state that joined the union.
While there is no doubt that the actual Betsy Ross was worthy of interest in her own right, it is the tale of Betsy stitching the initial stars and stripes that has made her an unforgettable historical number. The Betsy Ross story was offered spotlight in 1870 by her grand son, William Canby, in a speech he made to the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. Canby as well as various other members of Betsy’s family authorized sworn affidavits stating that they heard the tale of the production of the initial flag from Betsy’s very own mouth.
According to the oral history, in 1776, three men – George Washington, Robert Morris, and also George Ross, went to Betsy Ross in her upholstery store. On a piece of paper Washington showed, was an illustration of a flag with thirteen red and also white stripes and also thirteen six-pointed stars.
Washington asked if Betsy can make a flag from the design. Betsy reacted: “I don’t know, but I will certainly attempt.” This line was used in the vouched declarations of a lot of Betsy’s relatives, recommending that it is a straight quote from Betsy. As the story goes, Betsy suggested changing the stars to 5 points as opposed to six. She demonstrated to them how you can do it with just one snip of her scissors. They all agreed to change the style to have stars with five points.
Nevertheless, some chroniclers believe that it was Francis Hopkisnon that brought to life the idea of the Stars and Stripes. Francis Hopkinson was a popular patriot, an attorney, a Congressman from New Jersey, an endorser of the Declaration of Independence, poet, musician, and distinguished civil servant.
He was selected to the Continental Navy Board on November 6,1776. It was while working on the Continental Navy Board that he turned his attention to developing the flag of the United States. Making use of stars in that layout is believed to have actually been the outcome of an experience in the battle straightly related to his propriety.
A book in Hopkinson’s library at his home in Bordentown was taken by a Hessian soldier in December 1776, a dark year of the war. The soldier, an I. Ewald, composed on the within cover that he had seen the author near Philadelphia and also that he, Ewald, had taken the book from a great nation seat near Philadelphia. The soldier had actually created above and below Hopkinson’s bookplate, which had 3 six pointed stars and his household adage, “Semper Paratus”, or “Always Ready”.
In a letter to the Board of Admiralty in 1780 Hopkinson asserted that he had designed “the flag of the United States of America” along with numerous ornaments, devices, and checks appearing on bills of exchange, ship papers, the seals of the boards of Admiralty and Treasury, as well as the Great Seal of the United States. Hopkinson had actually received nothing for this job, and also now he submitted a bill and also asked “whether a Quarter Cask of the public wine” would not be a practical and proper reward for his labors.
Also so, nobody could be so sure who created the American flag. The American flag is the sacred emblem of the country. As you see the flag silhouetted against the serene skies of the nation, you are reminded that the American flag stands for exactly what you are – no more, no less.
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As taken from the Star Spangled Banner:
O say can you see, by the dawn’s early light,
What so proudly we hailed at the twilight’s last gleaming,
Whose broad stripes and bright stars through the perilous fight,
O’er the ramparts we watched, were so gallantly streaming?
And the rockets’ red glare, the bombs bursting in air,
Gave proof through the night that our flag was still there;
O say does that star-spangled banner yet wave
O’er the land of the free and the home of the brave?
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