The history of the United States is large and also intricate, yet can be broken down into milestones and also time periods that separated, unified, as well as changed the United States right into the nation it is today. The American flag really did not look like it does now. Besides that, it underwent a great deal of modifications and also adjustments.
The American Revolutionary War
Enter the American Revolution. Occasionally referred to as the American War of Independence, or the Revolutionary War, it was a conflict which lasted from 1775-1783 as well as permitted the original 13 colonies to remain independent from Great Britain. Starting in Great Britain in the late 1790s, the Industrial Revolution ultimately made its path to the United States and changed the focus of the nation’s economy as well as the method it produces items.
For more than a decade prior to the outbreak of the revolution in 1775, conflict had actually been building between colonists and also the British authorities. These tensions occurred from growing stress in between citizens of Great Britain’s 13 North American colonies as well as the colonial government (which stood for the British crown). Efforts by the British government to increase revenue by collecting tax from the colonies (especially the Stamp Act of 1765, the Townshend Tariffs of 1767 and the Tea Act of 1773) consulted with heated demonstration amongst several colonists, who disliked their absence of representation in Parliament and required the very same civil liberties as other British people. Colonial resistance brought about violence in 1770, when British soldiers opened fire on a mob of colonists, eliminating 5 people in exactly what was known as the Boston Massacre. After December 1773, when a band of Bostonians impersonated Mohawk Indians boarded British ships and dumped 342 containers of tea right into Boston Harbor, a furious Parliament passed a series of measures (called the Intolerable, or Coercive Acts) designed to reassert royal authority in Massachusetts.
George Washington was made its commander in chief. Congress wished they can compel the British to bargain but George III refused to compromise. Rather, in August 1775 he proclaimed that all the American colonies were in a state of rebellion.
By June 1776, with the Revolutionary War in full swing, an expanding majority of the colonists had come to prefer self-reliance from Britain. That same year Richard Henry Lee of the Virginia Assembly provided Congress with resolutions declaring the independence of the colonies, asking for a confederation and revealed the have to find international allies for a battle against Britain. On July 4th, the Continental Congress elected to take on the Declaration of Independence, composed by a five-man committee including Franklin and also John Adams but written mostly by Jefferson. By the fall of 1781, the American army had actually managed to force the adversary to withdraw to Virginia’s Yorktown peninsula, near where the York River clears into Chesapeake Bay. Supported by a French army commanded by General Jean Baptiste de Rochambeau, Washington moved against Yorktown with a total of around 14,000 soldiers, while a fleet of 36 French warships offshore avoided British support or evacuation. Caught as well as overpowered, the opponent was forced to surrender their entire army. Stating illness, the British general sent his deputy, Charles O’Hara, to give up; after O’Hara approached Rochambeau to surrender his sword (the Frenchman deferred to Washington), Washington gave the nod to his very own deputy, Benjamin Lincoln, who accepted it. After French support helped the Continental Army compel the British surrender at Yorktown, Virginia, in 1781, the Americans had actually successfully won their independence, though fighting would certainly not formally end up until 1783.
The motion for American independence successfully triumphed at Yorktown, contemporary observers did not see that as the definitive triumph. British and also American negotiators in Paris authorized preliminary peace terms in Paris late that November, and on September 3, 1783, Great Britain formally identified the independence of the United States in the Treaty of Paris.
Exactly how the American Flag happened
The American flag was developed to stand for the new union of the thirteen initial states: it would certainly have thirteen stripes, alternate red as well as white, and also thirteen stars, white on a blue field. One of the first flags had the stars set up in a circle, based upon the idea that colonies were equal. The thirteen stripes, laid out side by side, represented the battle for freedom; red meant valor, white signified purity and blue represented loyalty.
In 1818, after a few style changes, the United States Congress decided to keep the flag’s initial thirteen stripes and add brand-new stars to reflect each new state that got in the union.
While there is no question that the genuine Betsy Ross was worthy of interest in her own right, it is the legend of Betsy stitching the initial stars and stripes that has made her an unforgettable historical figure. The Betsy Ross story was offered public attention in 1870 by her grandson, William Canby, in a speech he made to the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. Canby as well as other members of Betsy’s household authorized vouched affidavits specifying that they heard the story of the making of the initial flag from Betsy’s very own mouth.
According to the narrative history, in 1776, three men – George Washington, Robert Morris, as well as George Ross, checked out Betsy Ross in her upholstery store. She escorted them to her parlor, where they might have a private meeting. Right here, Washington pulled a folded up paper from his inside coat pocket. On it, was an illustration of a flag with thirteen red and also white stripes and also thirteen 6-pointed stars.
Washington asked if Betsy might make a flag from the design. Betsy responded: “I don’t know, however I will attempt.” This line was used in the sworn declarations of several of Betsy’s family participants, recommending that it is a direct quote from Betsy. As the story goes, Betsy suggested altering the stars to five points instead than six.
However, some historians think that it was Francis Hopkisnon who gave birth to the suggestion of the Stars and Stripes. Francis Hopkinson was a prominent patriot, a lawyer, a Congressman from New Jersey, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, poet, artist, and also distinguished civil servant.
He was selected to the Continental Navy Board on November 6,1776. It was while serving on the Continental Navy Board that he transformed his focus on making the flag of the United States. Making use of stars because style is thought to have actually been the result of an experience in the war straightly related to his propriety.
A book in Hopkinson’s library at his home in Bordentown was taken by a Hessian soldier in December 1776, a dark year of the war. The book, Discourses on Public Occasions in America (London, 1762) by William Smith, D.D., had actually been a gift to him by the author. The soldier, an I. Ewald, wrote on the within cover that he had actually seen the writer near Philadelphia and that he, Ewald, had taken the book from a fine country seat near Philadelphia. The book was ultimately given to a person in Philadelphia that returned it to Hopkinson. The soldier had composed over and also listed below Hopkinson’s bookplate, which had three six pointed stars and his household motto, “Semper Paratus”, or “Always Ready”. The secure return of the book may well have signified to Hopkinson the rebirth of the Americans’ wish.
In a letter to the Board of Admiralty in 1780 Hopkinson insisted that he had actually made “the flag of the United States of America” along with numerous ornaments, devices, and checks appearing on bills of exchange, ship papers, the seals of the boards of Admiralty and also Treasury, and the Great Seal of the United States. Hopkinson had received nothing for this work, and also currently he sent a bill and asked “whether a Quarter Cask of the public wine” would certainly not be a reasonable and correct incentive for his labors.
Also so, nobody could be so sure who created the American flag. The American flag is the spiritual emblem of the nation. As you see the flag silhouetted against the relaxed skies of the country, you are reminded that the American flag stands for exactly what you are – no more, no less.
Top American Flags close to West Virginia state
As quoted from the Star Spangled Banner:
What so proudly we hailed at the twilight’s last gleaming,
Whose broad stripes and bright stars through the perilous fight,
O’er the ramparts we watched, were so gallantly streaming?
And the rockets’ red glare, the bombs bursting in air,
Gave proof through the night that our flag was still there;
O say does that star-spangled banner yet wave
O’er the land of the free and the home of the brave?
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