The background of the United States is substantial and also intricate, but can be broken down into milestones as well as periods that separated, merged, as well as altered the United States into the country it is today. The American flag didn’t appear like it does now. Other than that, it undertook a lot of changes as well as adjustments.
The American Revolutionary War
Enter the American Revolution. Often referred to as the American War of Independence, or the Revolutionary War, it was a conflict which lasted from 1775-1783 and allowed the initial 13 colonies to continue to be independent from Great Britain. Beginning in Great Britain in the late 1790s, the Industrial Revolution ultimately made its way to the United States and also changed the emphasis of the nation’s economy and the means it produces items.
These tensions arose from growing stress in between residents of Great Britain’s 13 North American colonies as well as the early american government (which represented the British crown). Efforts by the British federal government to elevate revenue by collectin tax from the colonies (significantly the Stamp Act of 1765, the Townshend Tariffs of 1767 and the Tea Act of 1773) met with heated protest among lots of colonists, that disliked their absence of depiction in Parliament and also required the very same legal rights as other British subjects.
The Continental Congress met in May 1775 and agreed to make an army. George Washington was made its leader. Congress hoped they could require the British to work out yet George III chose not to compromise. Rather, in August 1775 he stated that all the American colonies were in a state of disobedience. Rule by royal governor broke down and also the individuals demanded government without royal interference. In May 1776 Congress decided that royal government ought to stop and government should be ‘for individuals’. Consequently the colonies created state constitutions to change their charters.
By June 1776, with the Revolutionary War in progress, an expanding majority of the colonists had come to prefer freedom from Britain. That same year Richard Henry Lee of the Virginia Assembly provided Congress with resolutions proclaiming the independence of the colonies, requiring a confederation and also revealed the should locate foreign allies for a battle against Britain. On July 4th, the Continental Congress elected to adopt the Declaration of Independence, composed by a five-man committee consisting of Franklin as well as John Adams yet written mainly by Jefferson. By the fall of 1781, the American forces had actually begun to compel the adversary to retreat to Virginia’s Yorktown peninsula, near where the York River empties right into Chesapeake Bay. Backed up by a French military commanded by General Jean Baptiste de Rochambeau, Washington moved against Yorktown with a total amount of around 14,000 soldiers, while a fleet of 36 French warships offshore stopped British support or evacuation. Trapped and subdued, the opponent was required to surrender their whole military. Claiming illness, the British general sent his deputy, Charles O’Hara, to surrender; after O’Hara came close to Rochambeau to surrender his sword (the Frenchman deferred to Washington), Washington gave the nod to his very own replacement, Benjamin Lincoln, that approved it. After French aid aided the Continental Army compel the British abandonment at Yorktown, Virginia, in 1781, the Americans had properly won their independence, though fighting would certainly not officially end til 1783.
Though the motion for American independence effectively triumphed at Yorktown, contemporary historians did not see that as the crucial success yet. British forces remained stationed around Charleston, as well as the effective main army still resided in New York. The British removal of their troops from Charleston as well as Savannah in late 1782 lastly indicated completion of the conflict. British as well as American mediators in Paris signed initial peace terms in Paris late that November, as well as on September 3, 1783, Great Britain formally acknowledged the freedom of the United States in the Treaty of Paris. At the same time, Britain authorized separate peace treaties with France and Spain (which had entered the conflict in 1779), bringing the American Revolution to a close after 8 long years.
Just how the American Flag happened
The American flag was designed to represent the new union of the thirteen initial states: it would certainly have thirteen stripes, alternating red and white, and thirteen stars, white on a blue field. Among the initial flags had the stars set up in a circle, based upon the idea that all colonies were equal. The thirteen stripes, laid out side-by-side, represented the struggle for freedom; red meant valiance, white signified pureness as well as blue stood for loyalty.
In 1818, after a few layout modifications, the United States Congress made a decision to retain the flag’s initial thirteen stripes and also include new stars to show each new state that entered the union.
While there is no question that the real Betsy Ross was worthy of interest in her own right, it is the legend of Betsy sewing the very first stars and stripes that has actually made her an unforgettable historic figure. The Betsy Ross story was offered spotlight in 1870 by her grandson, William Canby, in a speech he made to the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. Canby and also various other participants of Betsy’s family members signed vouched testimonies stating that they heard the story of the production of the first flag from Betsy’s own mouth.
Based on the oral history, in 1776, 3 men – George Washington, Robert Morris, as well as George Ross, saw Betsy Ross in her furniture store. She accompanied them to her parlor, where they can have a private meeting. Here, Washington took a folded paper from his inside coat pocket. On it, was an illustration of a flag with thirteen red and also white stripes as well as thirteen 6-pointed stars.
Washington asked if Betsy might make a flag from the design. Betsy reacted: “I do not know, but I will certainly attempt.” This line was used in the vouched statements of several of Betsy’s family participants, recommending that it is a straight quote from Betsy. As the tale goes, Betsy suggested changing the stars to five points instead than six.
Some historians believe that it was Francis Hopkisnon who gave birth to the idea of the Stars and Stripes. Francis Hopkinson was a popular patriot, a legal representative, a Congressman from New Jersey, an endorser of the Declaration of Independence, poet, musician, and also identified civil servant.
He was selected to the Continental Navy Board on November 6,1776. It was while working on the Continental Navy Board that he transformed his focus on creating the flag of the United States. Making use of stars because style is thought to have actually been the result of an experience in the war directly pertaining to his propriety.
A publication in Hopkinson’s collection at his home in Bordentown was taken by a Hessian soldier in December 1776, a dark year of the war. The soldier, an I. Ewald, created on the inside cover that he had seen the author near Philadelphia and that he, Ewald, had taken the book from a fine nation seat near Philadelphia. The soldier had actually created over and listed below Hopkinson’s bookplate, which had 3 6 pointed stars and his family adage, “Semper Paratus”, or “Always Ready”.
In a letter to the Board of Admiralty in 1780 Hopkinson asserted that he had created “the flag of the United States of America” as well as numerous ornaments, devices, and checks showing up on bills of exchange, ship documents, the seals of the boards of Admiralty as well as Treasury, and also the Great Seal of the United States. Hopkinson had received absolutely nothing for this work, as well as now he sent a bill as well as asked “whether a Quarter Cask of the public wine” would not be a practical and also correct reward for his labors.
Also so, no one can be so sure who produced the American flag. The American flag is the sacred symbol of the nation. As you see the flag silhouetted against the peaceful skies of the nation, you are reminded that the American flag stands for what you are – no more, no much less.
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As taken from the Star Spangled Banner:
O say can you see, by the dawn’s early light,
What so proudly we hailed at the twilight’s last gleaming,
Whose broad stripes and bright stars through the perilous fight,
O’er the ramparts we watched, were so gallantly streaming?
And the rockets’ red glare, the bombs bursting in air,
Gave proof through the night that our flag was still there;
O say does that star-spangled banner yet wave
O’er the land of the free and the home of the brave?
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