The background of the United States is large and complicated, but can be broken down right into milestones and also time periods that separated, linked, and also altered the United States into the country it is now. The American flag didn’t appear like it does currently. Other than that, it went through a great deal of changes and modifications.
The American Revolutionary War
Enter the American Revolution. Often referred to as the American War of Independence, or the Revolutionary War, it was a dispute which lasted from 1775-1783 as well as enabled the original 13 colonies to continue to be independent from Great Britain. Starting in Great Britain in the late 1790s, the Industrial Revolution ultimately made its path to the United States as well as transformed the focus of the country’s economic climate and also the method it manufactures items.
For more than 10 years before the break out of the revolution in 1775, tensions had been building in between colonists as well as the British authorities. These stress emerged from growing tensions in between citizens of Great Britain’s 13 North American colonies and the early american government (which represented the British crown). Efforts by the British government to raise income by collecting tax from the colonies (especially the Stamp Act of 1765, the Townshend Tariffs of 1767 and the Tea Act of 1773) met violent demonstration amongst lots of colonists, who resented their absence of representation in Parliament and demanded the same rights as various other British subjects. Colonial resistance led to violence in 1770, when British soldiers opened fire on a crowd of colonists, eliminating five men in what was called the Boston Massacre. After December 1773, when a band of Bostonians impersonated Mohawk Indians boarded British ships then unloaded 342 containers of tea right into Boston Harbor, an annoyed Parliament passed a series of procedures (known as the Intolerable, or Coercive Acts) designed to reassert imperial authority in Massachusetts.
George Washington was made its commander in chief. Congress hoped they could compel the British to bargain but George III rejected to negotiate. Instead, in August 1775 he declared that all the American colonies were in a state of rebellion.
By the autumn of 1781, the American forces had begun to force the enemy to retreat to Virginia’s Yorktown peninsula, near where the York River clears right into Chesapeake Bay. Claiming ailments, the British general sent his replacement, Charles O’Hara, to give up; after O’Hara came close to Rochambeau to surrender his sword (the Frenchman deferred to Washington), Washington gave the nod to his own deputy, Benjamin Lincoln, that accepted it. After French assistance helped the Continental Army require the British surrender at Yorktown, Virginia, in 1781, the Americans had actually effectively won their self-reliance, though the war would certainly not officially finish up until 1783.
The movement for American independence effectively won at Yorktown, contemporary observers did not see that as the crucial victory. British and also American negotiators in Paris authorized initial peace terms in Paris late that November, and on September 3, 1783, Great Britain officially identified the freedom of the United States in the Treaty of Paris.
Exactly how the American Flag came to be
The American flag was developed to represent the new union of the thirteen original states: it would have thirteen stripes, alternating red and white, and thirteen stars, white on a blue field. Among the first flags had actually the stars organized in a circle, based on the suggestion that colonies were equal. The thirteen stripes, resting side-by-side, stood for the struggle for freedom; red meant valor, white signified pureness as well as blue represented loyalty.
In 1818, after a few layout adjustments, the United States Congress chose to preserve the flag’s initial thirteen stripes and also include new stars to show each new state that joined the union.
While there is no question that the real Betsy Ross was worthy of interest in her very own right, it is the tale of Betsy sewing the first stars and stripes that has actually made her a remarkable historic figure. The Betsy Ross tale was brought to public attention in 1870 by her grand son, William Canby, in a speech he made to the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. Canby as well as other members of Betsy’s family members signed vouched affidavits stating that they heard the tale of the production of the first flag from Betsy’s own mouth.
According to the oral history, in 1776, three men – George Washington, Robert Morris, and George Ross, visited Betsy Ross in her upholstery shop. On a paper Washington showed, was a sketch of a flag with thirteen red as well as white stripes and also thirteen six-pointed stars.
Washington asked if Betsy could make a flag from the style. Betsy responded: “I do not know, however I will try.” This line was utilized in the sworn statements of numerous of Betsy’s family participants, suggesting that it is a direct quote from Betsy. As the story goes, Betsy suggested changing the stars to five points instead compared to six.
However, some people believe that it was Francis Hopkisnon who gave birth to the concept of the Stars and Stripes. Francis Hopkinson was a prominent patriot, a lawyer, a Congressman from New Jersey, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, poet, artist, and also distinguished civil servant.
He was assigned to the Continental Navy Board on November 6,1776. It was while serving on the Continental Navy Board that he transformed his attention to designing the flag of the United States. Making use of stars because style is thought to have actually been the result of an experience in the battle directly related to his propriety.
A book in Hopkinson’s collection at his home in Bordentown was taken by a Hessian soldier in December 1776, a dark year of the war. The soldier, one I. Ewald, created on the within cover that he had actually seen the author near Philadelphia as well as that he, Ewald, had actually taken the publication from a fine country seat near Philadelphia. The soldier had composed above and listed below Hopkinson’s bookplate, which had three 6 pointed stars as well as his family slogan, “Semper Paratus”, or “Always Ready”.
In a letter to the Board of Admiralty in 1780 Hopkinson asserted that he had actually developed “the flag of the United States of America” in addition to several ornaments, devices, and checks appearing on bills of exchange, ship documents, the seals of the boards of Admiralty and Treasury, and also the Great Seal of the United States. Hopkinson had actually received absolutely nothing for this job, and also currently he submitted a bill and asked “whether a Quarter Cask of the public wine” would certainly not be a reasonable as well as correct incentive for his labors.
Even so, no one could be so certain that developed the American flag. The American flag is the spiritual emblem of the nation. As you see the flag silhouetted against the calm skies of the nation, you are reminded that the American flag stands for what you are – no more, no less.
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As taken from the Star Spangled Banner:
O say can you see, by the dawn’s early light,
What so proudly we hailed at the twilight’s last gleaming,
Whose broad stripes and bright stars through the perilous fight,
O’er the ramparts we watched, were so gallantly streaming?
And the rockets’ red glare, the bombs bursting in air,
Gave proof through the night that our flag was still there;
O say does that star-spangled banner yet wave
O’er the land of the free and the home of the brave?
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